Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors
Blake Ltd is finalizing its financial statements for the reporting period ending 30 June 2015. A number of unrelated scenarios still need to be considered and accounted for before the financial statements are finalized:
a) The company has, in the past, always recognized a provision for warranties equal to 5% of sales made during the year. Due to increasing warranty costs and the number of goods returned under warranty, the directors would like to increase the provision to 8% of sales made during the year. The provision for warranties account currently has a balance of $12,000, which is the balance carried forward from 30 June 2014. Sales for the year ended 30 June 2015 amounted to $460,000.
b) During the verification process for accounts payable, it was discovered that an amount of $80,000, incurred in May 2015 and payable to a supplier for raw materials, was recorded in the accounting records as $8,000. The $80,000 owing at 30 June 2015 was paid in July 2015.
c) During the verification process for office equipment, it became apparent that an item of office equipment that was thought to be on hand at 30 June 2014 had actually been destroyed in April 2014. The item had a cost of $40,000 and accumulated depreciation of $24,000. No depreciation has been calculated or recorded as yet for the year ended 30 June 2015.
d) During the verification process for accounts receivable, it was discovered that the sales manager had undertaken fraudulent activity – raising fake sales invoices in June 2015. The motivation of the manager was to ensure that his sales targets were met, so that he was eligible for his performance bonus. The fake sales invoices amounted to $122,000, with this entire amount included in the accounts receivable balance at 30 June 2015.
e) On 1 July 2014, the directors revised the useful life of its building (acquired 2 years earlier on 1 July 2012 for $600,000, with an estimated useful life of 20 years and residual value of nil on this date). On 1 July 2014, the remaining useful life was estimated to be 30 years. The building has been depreciated using the straight-line method over its useful life. No depreciation has been calculated or recorded as yet for the year ended 30 June 2015.
Assume all amounts are material for financial statement purposes.
With reference to AASB 108, explain whether each of the above scenarios is a change in accounting estimate or an error. State the appropriate accounting treatment (including any journal entries needed) for each scenario in the 2015 financial statements.
Question 2 [15 marks]
Accounting for share capital
On 1 April 2015, Sage Ltd was registered and issued a prospectus inviting applications for 2,000,000 shares, at an issue price of $3.50, payable as follows:
• $1.00 on application
• $1.50 on allotment
• $0.50 on first call
• $0.50 on final call
By 30 April, applications had been received for 2,100,000 shares. At the directors’ meeting on 3 May, it was decided to allot shares to the applicants in proportion to the number of shares for which applications had been made. The surplus application money was offset against the amount payable on allotment. All outstanding allotment money was received by 10 May. Legal costs re company formation were $7,000 and were paid on 11 May. Share issue costs of $3,000 were also paid on the same date.
The first call was made on 1 September 2015, with money due by 30 September 2015. The final call was made on 2 January 2016, with money due by 31 January 2016. All money owing in relation to the two calls was received by the due dates except for the holders of 100,000 shares who did not pay either call, and the holder of another 20,000 shares who did not pay the second call. On 10 March 2016, as provided in the company’s constitution, the directors forfeited these 120,000 shares.
On 25 March 2016, the forfeited shares were reissued as fully paid for a consideration of $2.80 per share. Costs of forfeiture and reissue amounted to $4,000, and were paid. The constitution allowed for the refund of any balance in the forfeited shares account after reissue to former shareholders, so refunds were made on 28 March 2016.
Prepare the journal entries to record the transactions of Sage Ltd up to and including that which took place on 28 March 2016. Show all relevant dates, narrations and workings.
Question 3 [15 marks]
Accounting for income tax
Frog Ltd has prepared its draft statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income and statement of financial position on 30 June 2015. The statements are prepared before considering taxation. The following information is available:
Extract from statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income for the year ended 30 June 2015
Gross profit 758,000
Rent revenue 14,000
Royalty revenue (exempt from income tax) 5,000
Proceeds from sale of plant 29,000
Administration expenses 116,500
Doubtful debts expense 4,000
Annual leave 13,500
Entertainment expenses (not tax deductible) 2,000
Warranty expenses 12,000
Carrying amount of plant sold 40,000
Depreciation expense - plant 14,000
Depreciation expense - motor vehicles 8,000