The Electoral College System in Presidential elections is a populist idea.
The Declaration of Independence excluded the term of “property” in order to mobilize the poor class.
The Articles of the Confederation allowed the federal government to collect taxes directly from the people in all states.
John Locke’s political philosophy took the very conservative position that high ranking state officials should have long terms of office.
The Federalists generally opposed Alexander Hamilton’s proposal for the creation of a national bank.
The Bill of Rights was written to enhance the power of the federal government.
The Alien Sedition Act was proposed by Thomas Jefferson to limit the power of the federal government.
Which of the following was NOT a significant potential obstacle to the westward expansion of the United States in the early years after the American Revolution?
competing state claims on western lands that dated back to the colonial era
resistance on the part of native peoples, such as the revolt of Dragging Canoe
the presence of Spanish forts near the Gulf of Mexico controlling the river born traffic on the Mississippi River
French attempts to regain control of lost territory in the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley regions.
the fact that the British still retained control of several forts in areas ceded to America at the end of the war
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 closely followed the plan of Thomas Jefferson’s “Land Ordinance of 1785”, helping to make the United States a country dominated politically by yeoman farmers.
The Continental Army was perceived to be a threat the stability of the new United States government in the first years after the American Revolution both because soldiers might seek to collect back pay through violent means and because the highest officers might exert an excessive influence on the government through groups like the “Society of the Cincinnati”.
Which of the following was NOT a major economic issue which the new U.S. government (as well as state governments) had to face in the first years after the American Revolution?
a lack of “hard currency” (silver and gold)
large government debts incurred during the war
a severe drought that devastated agricultural output just as soldiers were returning to the fields
a British embargo that prevented the United States from trading with Britain’s Caribbean colonies
an economic downturn (depression) caused by a sudden drop in prices after the war
Which of the following was NOT one of the primary goals of the Articles of Confederation?
to provide legitimacy to the Revolution by establishing a government
to enumerate the rights and privileges of U.S. citizens in a Bill of Rights
to allow for the creation of a national, professional army - the Continental Army
to engage in diplomacy with foreign (especially European) powers
to preserve a large degree of independence and autonomy for the states
Which of the following was NOT a significant problem with the U.S. federal government created by the Articles of Confederation?
It was hobbled diplomatically by the fact that all treaties negotiated by the government had to win the approval of ALL of the states before they came into effect.
It lacked and executive branch (e.g. a president) to implement the legislature’s decisions
It lacked legitimacy in the eyes of most Americans because the Articles of Confederation had never gone through a ratification process.
It lacked the ability to raise revenue on its own authority
It had no power to regulate relations among the states, especially in matters of commerce.
The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was conducted behind closed doors, with the result that most Americans at the time had no idea what was being debated.
The debate over the ratification of the Constitution pitted Tories like Thomas Jefferson, who favored a strong central government, against Whigs like Alexander Hamilton, who distrusted centralized power and preferred a more loose knit confederation.
Although most of those who supported the ratification of the Constitution thought that a Bill of Rights was unnecessary, they agreed to include one after ratification to calm the fears of those who thought the federal government created by the Constitution was too powerful.
Although all of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 were men, they came from all 13 states and were broadly representative of the American population in terms of social class and political outlook.
Which of the following was NOT a major point of contention at the Constitutional Convention of 1787?
how the president should be chosen and what his powers would be
whether the legislature should have one house or two, and whether the legislators should be apportioned equally among the states, or relative to the size of the population of each
whether the autonomy of the states needed to be reduced in favor of a stronger central government
whether the rights and privileges of citizens should be spelled out in the Constitution in a “Bill of Rights”
whether slavery should continue to be legal, and whether slaves should be counted in the census that determined representation in the House of Representatives
The term “federalism”, as it relates to the political system of the United States, denotes a government in which...
some powers are given to the federal government, and some are given to state and local governments, while still others are shared
the government’s powers are strictly limited to those explicitly granted by the Constitution
power is divided among different parts of the government, each of which can impede the actions of the others
the rights of the citizens are spelled out in, and explicitly protected by, the Constitution
the people exercise power indirectly through representatives
Despite the many contentious issues it faced, the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was dominated by a spirit of compromise, with the delegates repeatedly finding a middle ground between seemingly irreconcilable positions.
The Virginia and New Jersey Plans and the Connecticut Compromise all concerned what contentious issue at the Constitution Convention of 1787?
whether the federal government would or would not have the power regulate commerce between the states
whether there would be one house of Congress or two, and the manner in which legislators would be apportioned among the states
whether the power to declare war would rest with the executive branch, the legislature, or the military itself
whether the president would have the power to veto legislation, and under what circumstances such a veto could be overruled by the legislature
whether the approval of Congress would be necessary for the ratification of treaties negotiated by the executive with foreign powers
The Constitution explicitly grants the Supreme Court the power to declare laws passed by Congress to be unconstitutional, and therefore null and void.
What did the Constitution’s “Three Fifths Clause” specify?
that a presidential veto could only be overridden by a three fifth’s vote of both houses of Congress
that the constitution could only be amended if three fifths of the states approved
that in dividing up western lands, three new “free” states would be admitted to the country for every two “slave” states
that the federal government would assume three fifths of the states’ Revolutionary War debts, with the states remaining responsible for the remainder
that a slave would count as three fifths of a free person when apportioning seats in the House of Representatives to the states
The U.S. Bill of Rights (i.e. the ten amendments added to the U.S. Constitution soon after ratification) was NOT a unique innovation, but rather had important precedents in both colonial or English history.
Social scientists distinguish the terms “values” and “opinion” as they relate to public opinion, with “values” referring to the beliefs held by citizens about general questions, such as “should the government take action to ensure that wealth is evenly distributed”, while “opinion” refers to attitudes towards concrete government proposals, such as raising taxes on the wealthy.
What does the term “the Bradley Effect” mean (in regard to public opinion polls)?
the tendency of poll-takers to imply that one answer is better than another, often unintentionally
the tendency of people being polled to tell poll-takers what they think the poll-taker wants to hear.
the tendency of poll-makers to phrase polling questions in ways that tend to increase support for positions of which they themselves approve
the tendency of journalists to preferentially publish polls that indicate support for positions the journalists themselves support
the tendency of public opinion to split strongly along socio-economic lines
The Fugitive Slave Act was designed to free slaves from the plantations.
Hamilton was more interested in industrialization than Thomas Jefferson was.
When The First Amendment was written it did not include the freedom of religion. But five years later religious freedom was added.
Most of America’s “Founding Fathers” in 1780’s and 1790’s wanted to end slave trading immediately.
The institution that has power to decide President’s and Justices’ salaries is Congress.
Based upon the lecture and the text, the U.S. Constitution signed by George Washington was designed to guarantee the fair distribution of wealth among all American citizens.
Trial by jury as established in the U.S. Constitution is based upon Plato’s idea of elitism.
Shay’s rebellion could be classified as a class rebellion.
A bicameral legislature is closer to the idea of populism than elitism.
Academic studies consistently find no meaningful link between public opinion on the one hand and government action on the other.
Which of the following is commonly cited as an explanation for why government policy on a certain issue does not correspond with the opinion of the majority of citizens (as measured in public opinion polls)?
none of the above
A candidate or party that backs a minority agenda on one issue may come to power by campaigning on more popular positions on other issues, and then use their power to advance that minority agenda.
The majority may be relatively apathetic (unconcerned) about an issue, while a minority cares intensely about it.
A minority may be able to exert influence by means other than their votes (e.g. by using money)
all of the above (a, b and c)
American newspapers were originally not commercial ventures, but rather were established to disseminate the political views of their owners, and only became commercialized towards the end of the 1800s as printing costs fell.
What does the term “template” mean in regard to media news coverage?
none of the above
a political slant on the news which consistently favors one party or ideology over the other
a technique typical of “yellow journalism” where stories are fabricated or biased in a conscious effort by the publishers to shift public opinion in a certain direction
a narrative structure that attracts audiences by packaging the news as stories with conflict, good guys and bad guys, and other common storytelling elements
the tendency of news reporting to reflect the cultural attitudes of the journalists who create it (especially those conditioned by race, ethnicity and gender)
The term "Traditional Media" refers to those which are those staffed by professional journalists trained in the ethics and practices of "objective journalism".
Explain how Shay’s rebellion changed the mindsets of elite America's "Founding Fathers" and how the shock of the rebellion shaped their approach to drafting the U.S. Constitution.
What role(s) should the media ideally play in a thriving democracy? To what degree do the media in the modern United States meet these objectives? In what ways do they fail to do so?