What do you understand by Pharmacoepidemiology?
The aim of this study is to understand the term pharmacoepidemiology and the common error that encountered in pharmacoep. Carmel, Koonin and Dracheva (2012) suggested that practice of pharmacoepidemiology represented the numerous challenges for clinicians. It allows the clinicians in applying their knowledge of the risk and benefits of pharmaceuticals for population based as well as individual patient care.
What do you understand by Pharmacoepidemiology?
Conlon et al. (2011) argued that pharmacoepidemiology is one of the most effective study in order to identify the effects of drug in the large amount of people in this world. The great deal of understanding pharmacoepidemiology is the efficiency as well as short terms safety of drugs that arise during the development and approval of drugs.
According to Dean et al. (2013), pharmacoepidemiology is the discipline that provides important as well as valuable information about the economics and clinical outcomes of drugs, biologics, devices, etc. On the contrary, Janvid (2014) argued that pharmacoepidemiology is the discipline that describes valuable information of economic as well as clinical outcomes of drugs after getting the approvals of drugs for clinical uses. Pharmacoepidemiology mainly consists the results of drugs and affects of drug after use in the large number of people. Pharmacoepidemiology is the method that applied after the post marketing drugs surveillance.
Role of pharmacoepidemiology: Jern et al. 2012) argued that in order to take care of patent properly need to take review of drugs after approved for marketing. During the pre-marketing studies, it is not possible for understanding of potential benefits or risk. Therefore, in order to assess the risks and benefits of drugs several tools and techniques are used by the FDA center for Drug Evaluation. Furthermore, Murphy-Shigematsu (2010) cited that pharmacoepidemiology is the term that comes from the Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology. It is mainly used for monitoring the ongoing safety market of drugs after approval for clinical usage. Pharmacoepidemiology also used in addressing the issues related to drug utilization or the quality of care in health care industry. Effectiveness and safety of drugs effects is also the major part of analysis of pharmacoepidemiology. Rai et al. (2011) acknowledged that pharmacoepidemiology is an analytic methods in the field of medications. Pharmacoepidemiology allows the people in enrolling patients line by line and identify the risk factors of drug after approval.
What are the common errors encountered in pharmacoep?
Following are the common errors that encountered in pharmacoep –
Insulin: It has been seen that insulin error can happen for anyone at anytime. The potential results of insulin for those patients who take for long time or new to the therapy can be serious injury (Ruh et al., 2009).
Anticoagulants: ZOTOS (2011) argued that if people properly not used the anticoagulants drugs it may affect, report to the accidental deaths, or overdosing. It is one of the most popular drugs effect for human out of top five types of drugs effect. Rai et al. (2011) acknowledged that anticoagulants is concerned as the fatal medication error.
Amoxicillin: Due to amoxicillin, people faces allergic reaction in their body such as bloody diarrhoea, swollen gums, fever, skin sores, cough, trouble breathing, muscle weakness, severe tingling, rash or itching, etc. These are the common error regarding amoxicillin.
Aspirin: Due to aspirin the common error that encountered are strokes, allergic reaction, gastrointestinal bleeding, hearing loss, ringing in the ear, etc.
Ibuprofen: Regarding pharmacoep, ibuprofen is also one of the common error for human beings. Low dose or over does of ibuprofen created the people disable such as feeling sick that called nausea, vomiting overtime, tummy pain or abdominal pain, diarrhoea like watery stools, passing loose, dyspepsia or indigestion, etc. All these errors comes due to ibuprofen.
Penicillin: According to the healthcare professional, the more common error regarding penicillin in the human body such as headache, discharge and vaginal itching, white patches in the mouth, diarrhoea, tongue sore or mouth sore, etc. Apart from that, Dean et al. (2013) argued due to penicillin effect there are also several common error such as joint pain, scaly skin, fever, shortness of breath, etc.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: In relation to Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, various types of common error are identified such as hypersensitivity like pulmonary edema, hypotension, etc; nervous system like headache, depression, etc; hematologic and renal.
Cephalexin: The common errors of cephalexin are dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, stomach upset, vomiting, rash, itching, etc.
Acetaminophen: It is also an error that encountered in pharmacoep. The errors that identified regarding acetaminophen are dark urine, jaundice, clay-coloured stools, upper stomach pain, etc.
Hydrocodone: The errors that found out in hydrocodone are nausea, back pain, vomiting, itching skin, bladder pain, dry mouth, cloudy urine, stomach pain.
This study concludes about the pharmacoepidemiology with the help of example. Apart from that this study alos identified the common error that encountered in pharmacoep.