task: Drawing upon one of the four Case Studies provided below, explore how the following factors influence the learner's L2 development: i. similarities and differences between L1 and L2 ii. psychological factors iii. social factors. Then consider implications for language teaching/learning. You must draw upon (a) the set textbook (Lightbown & Spada) and (b) at least 4 readings from the required weekly readings of the subject. You may use further references as well, particularly in order to undertake the linguistic analysis of the case, but close and critical reading of (a) and (b) is essential. (This is an individual, written task.) Case study A. Josefina immigrated to Australia from the Philippines with her parents when she was 2 years old. She and her family came from a town outside Manila where most people spoke Tagalog in their everyday work and other social activities. However, as both Filipino (which evolved from Tagalog) and English are the official languages in the Philippines, Josefina had exposure to English in her environment, most notably through television. Even after migrating to Australia and settling in the western suburbs of Sydney, Josefina’s family members continue to converse in Tagalog at home, and most members of her parents’ social networks are from the Tagalog - speaking community who interact largely in Tagalog. Initially, Josefina’s friends were children of her parents’ social networks who also spoke Tagalog. However, through interactions with children from other language backgrounds and through schooling, some of the older children in the community have developed fluency in spoken English. Josefina could hear English spoken by some of these older children. Occasionally, one of them would read a children’s book to the younger children in English, and teach them some of the English words. Josefina’s parents started work almost as soon as they arrived in Australia. Josefina’s mother is a qualified nurse who works various shifts in a large hospital. Josefina’s father had a builder’s certificate from the Philippines, but has had difficulties getting it recognised in Australia, and has been doing labouring work with other Filipino workers. Josefina is now three and a half. Since arriving in Australia, Josefina has been dropped off each weekday morning at her aunt’s home to be looked after by the mother-in-law of Josefina’s aunt while her parents go to work. ‘Aunty Cecilia’ has two other Filipino children, aged two and three, who she looks after during the day. The children are indulged by Aunty Cecilia and allowed to play with their toys and watch as much television as they like. Aunty Cecilia does not read to them because her eyesight has been steadily deteriorating over the last few years. However, she enjoys telling Josefina and the other two children Filipino folk stories and teaching them children’s songs in Tagalog. Josefina is able to start pre-school in six months time. Her mother is keen to see Josefina in an environment that would accelerate her English language development, and is concerned that the nearest pre-school has a high population of Filipino children, many of whom do not seem to be able to communicate very much in English yet. Josefina’s mother is wondering whether she should find a different pre-school where Josefina will have no choice but to interact in English, even if this means longer travel. Case study B. Carlos is 25 years old, and has been living in Sydney for about 14 years since migrating here with his family from Chile. Members of his extended family had already been living in Sydney for some time, and Carlos’s family found accommodation and a welcoming community of Spanishspeaking migrants very quickly. Both parents found jobs in a factory soon after arrival, and Carlos and his older brother Luis were enrolled in the Intensive English Centre at a high school in western Sydney. Carlos used to idolise his bother Luis, who is four years older than him, and who was always popular among young women and always the ‘leader’ among his male friends. When they both started at the IEC, Luis, who had always found academic study difficult, could not bear sitting in IEC classes, unlike Carolos who was quite keen. But Luis quickly made friends with other young Spanish-speaking young men, all of whom shared his dislike of school. Soon Luis was skipping classes with his newly found friends, and getting into trouble with the school authorities, their parents and occasionally with the police. Carlos, on the other hand, had always liked school, especially maths and science. At the IEC, he was most switched on when the teacher was teaching the science and maths curricula, but he managed to do well in all of his subjects, and was transferred to the mainstream class after 12 months when he was 12. In the mainstream classes, Carlos’s hard work initially helped him to keep up. But within six months, his studies became increasingly disrupted by his older brother, who by that stage had not only been thrown out of school, but thrown out of his home by his parents. Carlos who still idolised his older brother would be asked to run errands for Luis when he should have been doing homework. Soon Carlos found it difficult to keep up with his school work, and was seen by his teachers as a ‘dis-engaged’ student who wasn’t ‘academically-inclined’. In his last years of high school, Carlos was advised to pick up vocational courses, and did so in TAFE. Over time, he completed an apprenticeship and then a Certificate 4 in Electrical Trades, and after working for a year, he decided that he wanted to go to university and obtain a degree in science. From his apprenticeship years and his year of full-time work, he has saved enough money to study part-time while working part-time (and his brother is no longer placing demands on his time, as he went back to Chile three years ago). Although Carlos had felt very confident about starting university, given his success in his TAFE courses, he is beginning to wonder about the emphasis made on a number of university websites about the academic English and literacy demands of university study, and what implications this has for his readiness to enrol in a university course. Case study C. An is originally from Myanmar. Her family is from one of the Karen minority ethnic groups who were in conflict with the military government over many decades since the end of the Second World War. Many Karen villages were burnt down during the conflict, and many people fled their homes. When An was only one year old, she and her family fled their home to hide and live in the forests close to the Thai border for eight years.