OVERVIEW: Write a 3–4-page analysis of gendered verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors that you observe in others. In preparation for the assessment, observe individuals in a public space and take note of your observations. In this assessment, you will apply your knowledge of gendered communication to explain the communication styles you observe in the world around you. Show Less By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria: Competency 2: Evaluate personal and social dimensions of gender, communication, and culture. Explain gendered verbal and nonverbal communication in a public setting. Competency 3: Compare and contrast both verbal and nonverbal communication differences between men and women. Describe traditional expectations for nonverbal communication. Examine patterns of nonverbal behavior between men and women. Explain violations of nonverbal expectation. Competency 5: Communicate effectively in a variety of formats. Communicate effectively and concisely using APA formatting. CONTEXT: The Assessment 3 Context document explores various differences in verbal and nonverbal communication between females and males. You may wish to review the document for an overview on those key concepts and ideas. Assessment 5 Context Language and Gender Men and women often exhibit very distinct verbal and nonverbal communication styles. Specifically, both masculine and feminine verbal and nonverbal communication styles include behaviors that help us define and better understand how gender is connected to communication. Language often defines men and women differently, and in turn, male and female communication and language styles help shape our awareness. It is important to understand that gendered language is often learned, and our individual cultures help shape our verbal communication mannerisms. Specifically, "because we use symbols to communicate, language shapes how we think of ourselves in addition to how we see the world around us" (Wood, 2015, p. 91). These combined factors can lead to miscommunication and misinterpretation. Keep in mind the following (Wood & Bodey, 2011, pp. 85–86): Male generic language excludes women. Language defines men and women differently. Language shapes awareness. Language organizes perceptions of gender. Language evaluates gender. Language allows self-reflection. Nonverbal communication is all elements of communication other than words. Scholars state that the majority of meaning comes from nonverbal behaviors. Nonverbal Communication When it comes to nonverbal communication, the signs and signals we use to communicate are extremely important. Often, these things help shape who we are as well as our communication style. Scholars estimate that nonverbal communication accounts for almost 65 percent to 93 percent of communication meaning (Jolly, 2000). Nonverbal communication also relates to gender. "Like language, nonverbal communication is related to gender and culture in two ways: It expresses cultural meanings of gender, and men and women use nonverbal communication to present themselves as gendered people" (Wood, 2015, p. 123). Two important things to remember are as follows (Wood & Bodey, 2011, p. 94): Nonverbal communication is all elements of communication other than words. Scholars state that the majority of meaning comes from nonverbal behaviors. The following tables describe some nonverbal and verbal communication differences between males and females: Nonverbal Communication Differences Females Males Claim less territory. Claim more territory and are more likely to have a room of their own (den, study, workshop, and so forth). Stand closer to each other while talking. Maintain a greater distance from each other while talking. Use more eye contact. Use less eye contact. Use more facial expression. Use less facial expression and reveal less emotion. Are more likely to return a smile. Smile less than women. Take up less space—cross arms. Sit with legs apart and often hold arms away from their bodies. Use fewer gestures. Use gestures when seeking approval. Use more gestures, especially in social situations. Use more eye contact. Use less eye contact. Verbal Communication Differences Females Males Speak softly. Speak loudly. Speak in a high-pitched voice. Speak in a deeper-pitched voice. Speak more quickly. Speak more slowly. Speak less directly. Speak more directly (get to the point). Both verbal communication and nonverbal communication shape our interactions with others in business and personal relationships. It is critical to understand the different aspects of verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as the role gender plays in each. Our survival as a species depends upon our ability to effectively communicate, both verbally and nonverbally. References Jolly, S. (2000). Understanding body language: Birdwhistell's theory of kinesics. Corporate Communications, 5(3), 133–139. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.library.capella.edu/docview/214191069?accountid=27965 Wood, J. T. (2010). Gendered lives: Communication, gender and culture (9th ed.). Beverly, MA: Wadsworth. Wood, J. T. (2015). Gendered lives: Communication, gender and culture (11th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Wood, J. T., & Bodey, K. R. (2010). Gendered lives: Communication, gender and culture (9th ed.). [Instructor's Resource Manual]. Beverly, MA: Wadsworth. Questions to Consider To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community. For the following questions, refer to the Resources for links to the Lieberman resource and the Barr resource: How do women and men differ in their typical use of nonverbal communication to regulate interaction? What is the cause of men's typically lower vocal pitch? Is it physiology? How accurately do women and men interpret others' emotions? Who generally talk more, women or men? How do childhood games affect adult communication styles? What is conversational maintenance work and who generally does it? References Barr, K. R. (2013). Male and female communication styles [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/188130-male-and-female-communication/ Lieberman, S. (n.d.). Differences in male and female communication styles. Retrieved from http://www.simmalieberman.com/articles/maleandfemale.html Resources Suggested Resources The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom. Capella Resources Click the links provided to view the following resources: Assessment 3 Context. Capella Multimedia Click the links provided below to view the following multimedia pieces: Key Terms | Transcript. This media piece focuses on the key concepts and definitions you must be familiar with as you go through the course. Gender and Communication | Transcript. This interactive will help you review the information you learned about men's and women's verbal and nonverbal communication. Pay particular attention to which characteristics fit with which sex. Show Less Library Resources The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course: Manss, V. C. (1994). Effective communication: Gender issues. Nursing Management, 25(6), 79. Fox, A. B., Bukatko, D., Hallahan, M., & Crawford, M. (2007). The medium makes a difference: Gender similarities and differences in instant messaging. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26, 389–397 Jacobsen, J. L. (2005). Miscommunication in male/female conversations. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (Order No. 3194923, Arizona State University). Lyddy, F., & Martin, N. (2001). E-male or female? Psychologist, 14(8), 433. Meier, E. A. (1999). Gender and communication. English Quarterly, 31(3/4), 115–119. Britton, N. J., & Hall, J. A. (1995). Beliefs about female and male nonverbal communications. Sex Roles, 32(1/2), 79–90. Course Library Guide A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the COM-FP3200 – Leadership, Gender, and Communication Library Guide to help direct your research. Internet Resources Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication. Lieberman, S. (n.d.). Differences in male and female communication styles. Retrieved from Sherwood, S. (2014). 10 ways men and women communicate differently. Discovery Channel. Retrieved from http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/10-ways-men-women-comminucate-differently.htm North Seattle Community College. (n.d.). Lecture notes excerpted from Julia T. Wood's Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture. Retrieved from Leigh, E. (2010). Men & women communicating in the workplace. The Center for Healthcare Communication. Retrieved fromBarr, K. R. (2013). Male and female communication styles [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/188130-male-and-female-communication/ Bookstore Resources The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation. Wood, J. T. (2012). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture (10th ed.). Beverly, MA: Wadsworth. Key Terms Unit 1 Androgyny A psychological sex-type (not biological). Androgynous people tend to identify with and enact qualities socially recognized to both women and men. Communication A dynamic, systemic process in which meanings are created and reflected in and through humans' interactions with symbols. Content Level of Meaning The literal meaning of communication. Content-level meanings are the formal, or denotative, meanings of messages. Critical Research Methods Identification and challenge to inequities and problems in social life. Culture The structures and practices, especially those relating to communication, through which a particular social order is produced and reproduced by legitimizing certain values, expectations, meanings, and patterns of behavior. Essentializing The reduction of a phenomenon to its essential characteristics, which are generally presumed to be innate or unchangeable. To essentialize the sexes is to imply that all women are alike in basic respects, that all men are alike in basic respects, and that the two sexes are distinct from each other because of fundamental, essential qualities. Gender A social, symbolic construction that expresses the meanings a society confers on biological sex. Gender varies across cultures, over time within any given society, and in relation to other genders. Gender Identity A person's own identification as male or female. It is the personal perception of one's sex. Intersexed Having both male and female biological sexual characteristics. Previously known as hermaphrodites. Patriarchal Generally refers to systems of ideology, social structures, and practices, created by men, that reflect the values, priorities, and views of men as a group. Qualitative Research Methods Aim to understand the nature or meaning of experiences, which cannot be quantified into numbers. Quantitative Research Methods Way of gathering data that can be quantified and analyzing the data to draw conclusions. Relationship Level of Meaning The non-literal meaning of communication. Expresses how a speaker sees the relationship between self and other. Sex A personal quality determined by biological and genetic characteristics. Male, female, man, and woman indicate sex. Unit 2 Biological Theory The theory that biological characteristics of the sexes are the basis of gender differences in thinking, communicating, feeling, and other functions. Cognitive Development Theory A developmental theory according to which children participate in defining their genders by acting on internal motivations to be competent, which in turn lead them to seek out gender models that help them to sculpt their own femininity or masculinity. Gender Constancy A person's understanding, which usually develops by age three, that her or his sex is relatively fixed and unchanging. Heteronormativity The assumption that heterosexuality is normative and all other sexual identities are abnormal. Performative Theory Claims that identity, including gender, is not something individuals have, but rather something they do through performance or expression. Psychodynamic Theory The theory that family relatinships, especially between mother and child during the formative years of life, have a pivotal and continuing impact on the development of self, particularly gender identity. Queer Performative Theory Integration of queer and performative theories into a perspective on performances as means of challenging and destabilizing conventional cultural categories and the values attached to them. Queer Theory Critique of conventional categories of identity and cultural views of "normal" and "abnormal," particularly in relation to sexuality. Queer theory argues identities are not fixed, but fluid. Role Social definitions of expected behaviors and the values associated with them; typically internalized by individuals in the process of socialization. Social Learning Theory Theory that individuals learn to be masculine and feminine (among other things) by observing and imitating others and by reacting to the rewards and punishments others give in response to imitative behaviors. Standpoint Theory A theory that focuses on the influence of gender, race, class, and other social categories on circumstances of people's lives, especially their social positions and the kinds of experiences fostered within those positions. According to standpoint theory, political consciousness about social location can generate a standpoint that affects perspective and action. Symbolic Interaction Theory The theory that individuals develop self-identity and an understanding of social life, values, and codes of conduct through communicative interactions with others in a society. Unit 3 Antifeminism A movement opposing any measures that advance women's equality, status, rights, or opportunities. Also described as a countermovement that seeks to repudiate and contain feminism by arguing two contradictory claims: (1) that women have never had it so good, so there is no longer any need for feminism; and (2) that feminism has caused serious problems in women's lives and family relationships. Also called the backlash against feminism. Antisuffrage Movement A movement that aimed to prevent women from gaining the right to vote in the United States. Opposition to women's suffrage was evident as early as 1848 but had become formalized in organizations by 1911. Cultural Feminism The viewpoint that women and men differ in fundamental ways, including biology, and that, in general, women and men have distinct standpoints that foster different experiences, perspectives, skills, and knowledge (for instance, nurturance in women and independence in men). Ecofeminism A movement that integrates the intellectual and political bases of feminist theorizing with ecological philosophy. The specific oppression of women is seen as a particular instance of a larger ideology that esteems violence and domination of women, children, animals, and the earth. Lesbian Feminist Feminists whose sexual preference is women and who define themselves as a woman (woman-identified). In addition, they are committed to fighting for legal rights for all woman-identified women. Liberal Feminism A form of feminism that maintains that women and men are alike in important respects and that women should have the same economic, political, professional, and civic opportunities and rights as men. NOW (the National Organization for Women) is the best-known organization representing liberal feminism. Million Women March A grassroots gathering of African-American women launched in Philadelphia in 1997 to celebrate and foster solidarity among black women. Multiracial Feminist A branch of the women's movement that is concerned with race and the racial oppression of women. Power Feminism A movement that emerged in the 1990s as a reaction to feminist emphasis on women's oppression. Urges women to take the power that is theirs and to reject seeing themselves as victims of men or society. Radical Feminism A branch of feminism that grew out of New Left politics and demanded the same attention to women's oppression that New Left organizations gave to racial oppression and other ideological issues. Radical feminists pioneered revolutionary communication techniques such as consciousness raising, leaderless group discussion, and guerrilla theater. Revalorists Feminists who focus on valuing traditionally feminine skills, activities, and perspectives and their contributions to personal, interpersonal, and cultural life. Separatists Feminist groups who believe that, because patriarchal culture cannot be changed or reformed, women who find it oppressive must create and live in their own women-centered communities separate from the larger culture. Third-wave Feminist An emergent movement asserting that feminism for the current era is not just an extension of second-wave feminism. Aims (1) to be inclusive of diverse peoples; (2) to use personal life and personal action for political impact; and (3) to work to build coalitions with other groups that struggle against oppression. Womanists A group of women who define their identities and goals as reflecting both race and gender oppression. The womanist movement arose out of dissatisfaction with mainstream feminism's focus on white, middle-class women and their interests. Women's Rights Movement From the mid-1800s to the 1920s, a movement that focused on gaining basic rights for women, such as the right to vote, to pursue higher education, and to enter professions. Father Hunger From the mythopoetic men's movement, men's yearning to be close to other men and to build deep, enduring bonds with them; based on the mythopoetic belief that most young boys have distant relationships with the primary man in their lives—the father—and that the hunger for meaningful contact with men, of which they were deprived in youth, continues throughout life. Fathers 4 Justice A British fathers' rights group that relies on the two rhetorical strategies of humor and dramatic stunts to raise public awareness about the custody rights of separated and divorced fathers. Free Men A branch of the men's movement that seeks to restore the traditional image of men by celebrating and encouraging the qualities of competitiveness, independence, and ruggedness in men. Male Feminists Men who believe that women and men are alike in important respects and that the sexes should enjoy the same privileges, rights, opportunities, and status in society. Male feminists join liberal women feminists in fighting for equitable treatment of women. In addition, many male feminists seek to rid themselves of what they regard as toxic masculinity promoted in men by socialization, and to develop sensitivities more typically inculcated in women. Also called profeminist men. Masculinist A category of men's movement that sees men as oppressed and seeks to preserve men's freedom from women and feminization. Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) A male antiviolence program that educates men about socialization that links masculinity to violence and aggression; motivates men to reject violence in themselves and other men. Men's Rights Activities Members of a men's movement whose goal is to restore traditional roles for men and women and, with that, the privileges men have historically enjoyed. Million Man March A branch of the men's movement that began with a march in Washington, D.C., in 1995, in which black men atoned for sins and committed themselves to spiritual transformation and political action. Annual marches were also held in subsequent years. Mythopoetic Movement A branch of the men's movement headed by poet Robert Bly and active in the 1990s. Mythopoetics believe that men need to rediscover their distinctively masculine modes of feeling, which they regard as rooted largely in myth. NOMAS (National Organization for Men Against Sexism) An activist men's organization that promotes personal, political, and social changes that foster equality of men and women and gay and straight people through workshops and informal group discussions, public speaking, educational outreach programs, and enactment of traitorous identities. Promise Keepers Begun in 1990, a Christian branch of the men's movement that calls men together to pray and commit to Christ-centered living. Traitorous Identity A group member's criticism of particular attitudes and actions, for example, sexist jokes, that are accepted and normative within the group. White Ribbon Campaign (WRC) An international group of men who work to end man's violence against women. Unit 4 Male Generic Language Words and phrases that are claimed to refer to both women and men yet are denotatively masculine; for example, the word man used to refer to all human beings. Matriarchal The term matriarchy is generally used to refer to systems of ideology, social structures, and practices that are created by women and reflect the values, priorities, and views of women as a group. Minimal Response Cues Nominal indicators of listening or attending. "Um" and "yeah" are minimal response cues. Polarized Thinking Conceiving things in terms of opposites, for example: good or bad, right or wrong. Speech Community A group of people who share assumptions regarding how, when, and why to communicate and how to interpret others' communication. Spotlighting Highlighting a person's sex rather than other, more relevant characteristics; for example, the headline "Woman Elected Mayor." Stereotype A broad generalization about an entire class of phenomena, based on some knowledge of limited aspects of certain members of the class. Unit 5 Artifact A personal object that influences how we see ourselves and how we express our identities. Haptic Touch as a form of nonverbal communication. Kinesics Facial and body movements; one type of nonverbal communication. Nonverbal Communication All elements of communication other than words themselves. Estimated to carry 65% to 93% of the total meaning of communication; includes visual, vocal, environmental, and physical aspects of interaction. Paralanguage Vocal cues that accompany verbal communication, such as accent, volume, and inflection. Power Dimension of relationship-level meaning that expresses the degree to which a person is equal to, dominant over, or deferential to others. Proxemics Space and the human use of space, including personal territories. Responsiveness The dimension of relationship-level meaning that expresses attentiveness to others and interest in what they say and do. Territoriality An aspect of proxemics; the sense of personal space that one does not want others to invade. Unit 6 Ego Boundaries Psychologically, the point at which an individual stops and the rest of the world begins; an individual's sense of the line between herself or himself and others. Ego boundaries range from permeable (a sense of self that includes others and their issues, problems, and so on) to rigid (a sense of self as completely distinct from others). Monitoring The process of observing and regulating our own attitudes and behaviors, which is possible because humans can reflect on themselves from others' perspectives (self-as-object). Self-as-Object The ability to reflect on the self from the standpoint of others. Because humans are able to take others' perspectives. Unit 7 Culture of Romance Created when forces in higher education encourage women students to regard being attractive to men as more important than academics and career preparation. Effortless Perfection The pressure felt by many women students at colleges to be beautiful, fit, popular, smart, and accomplished, all without visible effort. Hidden Curriculum In educational institutions, the organization, content, and teaching styles that reflect gender stereotypes and sustain gender inequities by marginalizing and devaluing female and minority students. Invisible Hand Discrimination The inadvertent application, in discriminatory fashion, of policies that are not inherently biased. Title IX The section of the Educational Amendment of 1972 that makes it illegal for schools that accept federal funds to discriminate on the basis of sex. Unit 8 Alternative Paths Model A relationship theory according to which masculine and feminine ways of creating and expressing closeness are viewed as different from each other and equally valid. Male Deficit Model A relationship theory according to which men are deficient in forming and participating in close relationships; holds that most men's ways of experiencing and expressing closeness are not simply different from, but inferior to, those of women. Personal Relationships Connections in which partners are interdependent, consider each other irreplaceable, and are strongly and specifically connected to each other as unique individuals. Psychological Responsibility The responsibility to remember, plan, think ahead, organize, and so forth. In most heterosexual relationships, even when physical labor is divided between partners, women assume greater psychological responsibility for the home and children. Second-Shift The work of homemaking and child care performed by a member of a dual-worker family after and in addition to that person's job in the paid labor force. Unit 9 Affirmative Action Collective term for policies that go beyond equal opportunity laws to redress discrimination. Assumes that historical patterns of discrimination against groups of people justify the preferential treatment of members of those groups; focuses on results, not on the intent of efforts to redress inequities; and attempts to increase the number of qualified members of minorities in education and the workplace, commensurate with their availability. Equal Opportunity Laws Laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Equal opportunity laws seek to protect individual members of groups that have been targets of discrimination; they redress only current discrimination, not historical bias. Glass Ceiling An invisible barrier, made up of subtle, often unconscious prejudices and stereotypes, that limits the opportunities and advancement of women and minorities. Glass Walls A metaphor for sex segregation on the job. Glass walls exist when members of a group, such as women, are placed in positions based on stereotypes of that group. Typically, such positions do not entail advancement ladders. Goal A stated intention to achieve a defined representation of minorities or women. Microinequities Verbal comments and behaviors that devalue members of a group but do not violate antidiscrimination laws. They can affect morale, job performance, and career advancement. Quota A particular number or percentage of women or minorities who must be admitted to schools, hired in certain positions, or promoted to certain levels in institutions. Unit 10 Agenda Setting Claims media set the public agenda by telling us what's important or what we should think about. Complimentary Copy An article or section of writing about an advertiser's product or service that is placed in a magazine by the publisher at no cost to the advertiser, to increase the market appeal of the product or service. Gatekeeper People and groups that control which messages get through to audiences of mass media. Immersive Advertising Incorporating a particular brand or product into entertainment. Mommy Track Informal term for the practice of placing women on a separate career path that limits their career opportunities and advancement. Product Placement Showing or mentioning a particular brand or product in a show, story, film, or other form of media. Voice-overs A technique used in audiovisual media, particularly television commercials; over the action on the screen, viewers hear a voice that makes claims about the product, gives advice, or explains the action. Blaming the Victim Holding a harmed person responsible for the harm inflicted on him or her by another person. Femicide The killing of women. Gender Intimidation The treatment of members of one sex in ways that make them feel humiliated, unsafe, or inferior because of their sex. Gendered Violence Physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, or visual brutality inflicted disproportionately or exclusively on members of one sex. Includes gender intimidation, sexual assault, violence between intimates, sexual harassment, genital mutilation, and gender-based murder. Hostile Environment Harassment Conduct that has sexual overtones and that interferes with a person's ability to perform a job or gain an education or that creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive working environment. Informed Consent Consent given by a legal adult with normal mental abilities whose judgment is not impaired by circumstances, including alcohol or other drugs. Intimate Partner Violence The use of physical, mental, emotional, verbal, or economic power by one partner against the other partner in a current or past romantic relationship. Quid Pro Quo Harassment Actual or threatened use of professional or academic rewards or punishments to gain sexual compliance from a subordinate or student. Sexual Harassment Unwelcome conduct of a sexualized nature. References Wood, J. T. (2011). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture. Boston, MA: Cengage. ISBN: 9780495794165. Credits Subject Matter Expert: Melissa Weaver Interactive Design: Tara Schiller Instructional Designer: Laura BadaraccoAmend Project Manager: Alan Campbell Licensed und Capella University logo Print Credits Gender and Communication Verbal Women Feels that talk is a key part of playing As a child, often plays in small groups/pairs Uses communciation to create/maintain relationships Uses communication to show sensitivity/support for others Tentative in communication: verbal hedges/tag questions Is gentle when criticizing Men Uses talk to achieve a goal As a child, often plays in large groups Uses communication to assert ideas Is competitive with others As a child, includes roughhousing in play Uses communication to get/maintain attention Nonverbal Women Uses lot of eye contact Smiles often/more likely to return a smile Uses more facial expressions Stands close to others during conversation Plays with hair/clothing, places hands in lap In general, uses fewer gestures in conversation Men Uses less eye contact Smiles less Reveals little emotion through facial expressions Has more negative reactions to crowding Maintains greater physical distance from others Uses sweeping arm and hand gestures Credits Subject Matter Expert: Melissa Weaver Interactive Design: Alyssa Wilcox, Matthew Johnson Instructional Designer: JodiRae Foss Project Manager: Alan Campbell Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Assessment Instructions Begin this assessment by watching or listening (or both) to people in a public space. Look for examples of gendered verbal and nonverbal communication. Remember as you observe that men may engage in feminine verbal and nonverbal communication, and women may engage in masculine verbal and nonverbal communication. Note your observations. Then, write an analysis of the gendered dimensions of verbal and nonverbal communication that you observe in a public space. Consider the following in your analysis: Did men and women tend to follow traditional expectations for nonverbal communication? Explain. Did men and women tend to follow traditional expectations for verbal communication? Explain. Did you notice any other patterns in your observations (verbal or nonverbal [or both])? Explain. Did anyone violate a nonverbal expectation? Explain. What was the response to the violation? Additional Requirements Written communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced. Use Microsoft Word. Number of resources: 4 or more. Length: 3–4 pages.