The basic requirements for the existence of human beings are food, clothing’s and shelter and with the progress of human civilization, the human put considerable effort to improve the standard of living. Modern people provide extensive efforts for acquiring economic as well as efficient shelter (Allen and Iano, 2004). The home provides the people a feeling of security and responsibility; beside this, enhance the social status of the individual. Every human being wants a peaceful environment and pleasant living condition, safety from the natural calamities and natural resources. Apart from that, the necessary facilities must be available for the communities of the residential arena. In addition to that, there must be facilities for the businessman for performing the business activities. If any industrial project is done then the facilities for the industry must be present. Therefore, for building any construction the architects use design necessary plans for the spatial, environmental as well as the visual needs. After completion of all these needs, the fabric of the construction must be pointed out. Then the time for the selection for the requisite materials and the process of making the building elements like the foundation, wall, roof and floor (Ching and Adams, 2001). The methods for the construction of building thus consist of good understanding of the characteristics of the required materials, the methods of processing them.
Footing is a unit, which transmits the loads from the structure to soil or the base that is supporting the whole structure. Footings are developed to transfer the loads from the structure to the soil without exceeding the loads safe bearing capacity, in order to prevent the structures excessive settlement to a tolerable limit, to minimize differential settlement and to prevent overturning and sliding (Iskander, Laefer & Hussein, 2009). The settlement is based upon the intensity of load, soil type, and the level of foundation. Wherever there is a different settlement possibility occurs, the different footing must be designed in such a way so that it can be settled independently each other. As because the compressive strength of soil is much weaker as compared to the concrete, the contact area in between the footing and the soil is much bigger than that of the walls and columns (Vanek, Albright & Angenent, 2012). Therefore, footing is considered as very important part for the construction of any building structure.
Footings are mainly of two categories:
1. Shallow Foundation
2. Deep foundation
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