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1. Introduction

The study is having in depth discussion about the outsourcing and in sourcing of different products and services. BP, that is, British Petroleum is one of the best known oil and gas industry headquartered in London. In context to this stated Dowle et al. (2015), British Petroleum main component which is outsourced is oil and gas. The report is also having discussion about different decision logic adopted by British petroleum regarding outsourcing and in sourcing. As mentioned by Grant (2012), every process, that is, outsourcing and in sourcing is having risk involved in it. The report is also having explanation about the analysis of different risk. In addition to this, there is in brief discussion about factors which affect the outsourcing and in sourcing of products and services. There is also an analysis of factors with the help of five performance objective approach.

In context to this Jones and Robinson (2012) stated, British petroleum is famous for oil and gas outsourcing in different parts of country. On the other hand, British Petroleum in sources natural resources, different experts for refining oil and gas from them and others. As commented by Hill and Hill (2012), the in sourcing and outsourcing of product and services of BP are dependent on different strategies and policies. In addition to this, they also follow several strategies for risk management process.

2. About decision logic of outsourcing and optimal outsourcing solution of BP

As mentioned by Myerson (2012), British Petroleum tries to outsource services or products which are strategically of low importance but they have high operational performance. For example, the manufacturing industries try to outsource their IT based work. It helps them to focus on their in home work and business. In context to this Schönsleben (2012) stated, delivery of product or service is not important in case of BP but the quality and performance of product and service is important. In case of British Petroleum, they outsource their IT based work to IT expert companies. As commented by Pienaar and Vogt (2012), it helps them to reduce the operational cost and increase their productivity. On the other hand, with the help of IT work Outsourcing they focus oil and gas exploration and other activities.

In context to this Stevenson (2012) stated, decision logic helps in completing process in proper manner and it ensures the success of process. On the other hand, outsourcing decision logic helps in completing the outsourcing process in proper manner. In addition to this, it also helps in reducing the success of BP outsourcing. The main outsourcing by British Petroleum is done with the help of decision logic and risk management process. On the other hand, decision logic regarding outsourcing helps BP experts to decide in which form to outsource and other factors. In case of in house of product or services it helps in analyzing the process step by step. In context to this Highn (2011) stated, outsourcing and in housing of products and services of BP are dependent on strategic alliance form. That is, business relation of British Petroleum with other firms. As commented by Zuba et al. (2012), IT based work outsourcing of British Petroleum helps them to increase the profit by cutting down operational cost. On the other hand, it also increases the efficiency of British Petroleum. In addition to this Jiwani (2013) stated, British Petroleum in current time has also started outsourcing of back office activities, to focus more on their oil and gas production, exploration and similar activities.

3. Detailed logic map of outsourcing and in sourcing of BP products and services

In context to this Nordmeyer (2015) commented, detailed logic map of outsourcing is common for all oil and gas companies. It is planes taking into consideration different factors, that is, style or type of strategic alliance with other similar or different fields companies, retaining power of organization. As stated by Kokes (2015), mainly oil and gas companies outsource their IT based work and in source natural resources and other products. The detailed outsourcing logic map is related to outsourcing decision matrix. The outsourcing decision matrix implemented by British Petroleum is –

Figure: Outsourcing decision matrix opted by British Petroleum

As stated by Cavusgil et al. (2012), the outsourcing matrix of British petroleum is described with the help of relation among organization different strategic complexities, importance and contribution level of British petroleum in their operation and other factors. As it can be seen that, first quadrant is having high level of strategic importance and low level of contribution of organization. As commented by Wenke (2015), in this stage organization motivate their employees and staff of strategic alliance with other organization. In addition to this, strategic alliance is done taking into consideration stability and profitability of organization. On the other hand, in house staffs of British Petroleum are provided with proper training regarding strategic alliance and polices. In context to this Kokes (2015) commented, every strategic alliance is having pros and cons, so it should be done in proper manner.

In addition to this, second quadrant of this matrix describes the high strategic importance and high level of contribution of organization. In this stage BP tries to maintain their relation with other companies who have product or service outsourcing and in housing. On the other hand, in this stage BP also tries to maintain their in house products and services. As mentioned by Hill and Hill (2012), it helps them to increase their operational efficiency and profitability. As the contribution level of organization is high so productivity of organization is also high.

The third quadrant is having low level of organization involved and strategic importance. In context to this Richards (2013) stated, strategic importance level of activities help in deciding whether to outsource or not. In this stage of outsourcing matrix organization tries to remove the unwanted product or services which may affect the outsourcing process. In addition to this, BP tries to reduce their outsourcing cost by reducing the gap in different process and others. The fourth quadrant is the final quadrant in outsourcing matrix. The fourth quadrant is having high level of organization involved but low level of strategic importance. As stated by Cavusgil et al. (2012), the final stage of is when outsourcing process is completed. On the other hand, with the help of strategic alliance outsourcing can be completed. With the help of overall operational cost level British Petroleum outsourcing decision is done.

3. Analysis of different factors which affect decision regarding outsourcing and in house with the help of performance objective

  • The first point which British Petroleum should consider while outsourcing or in housing of product or services is involvement of government. As stated by Pienaar and Vogt (2012), every country is having their own set of outsourcing and in sourcing rules and regulation. For example, if BP is outsourcing their IT based work to firm situated in Asia. Then they have to follow outsourcing and other related policies of both countries, that is, outsourcing country and their own.
  • As stated by Jones and Robinson (2012), the second factor is social factor which may affect the outsourcing or in housing decision. Under the social factor fall different factors, that is, culture of country, demographical situation and problems. In addition to this, attitude change of people as well as living style and standard. The outsourcing decision of British Petroleum is dependent on these factors.
  • The third factor on which outsourcing and in housing decision is dependent is technological change. As mentioned by Pienaar and Vogt (2012), in current scenario every country is having different level of technological usage. The outsourcing process is very much dependent technical components and tools. The efficiency of outsourcing and in housing is dependent on technical support system.
  • The fourth factor is ecological factor which may affect the outsourcing and in housing of BP. In context to this Jones and Robinson (2012) stated, BP main product is oil and gas, so while production they have to consider their ecological system. Likewise, while outsourcing and in housing the product and services BP has to consider human population of country. On the other, it is main responsibility of every organization to maintain their ecological system.
  • The last factor which may affect the outsourcing and in housing process is economy, that is, unemployment, inflation and other rates of country. As mentioned by Pienaar and Vogt (2012), every country is having their own level of inflation, employment and other. And the in housing of BP product is decided taking into this factor in consideration.

4. Analysis and evaluation of different risk involved in decision making process of BP

As commented by Jiwani (2013), risk in decision making process can be mitigated with the help of proper planning and management. In addition to this, proper goal determination and process implementation in outsourcing is also important. The risk management should be proper so that outsourcing or in housing is done successfully. In context to this Wenke (2015) commented, risk in this process is sorted in three different types, which are –

  • The risk while outsourcing or in housing product or service can be reduced by proper implementation of security measures. As mentioned by Highn (2011), the security and privacy measure will help in outsourcing and in housing of product and services. For example, if information security is not proper than, British Petroleum while outsourcing or in housing can lose their data.
  • The main focus of management should be on their strategies, procedures and policies so that risk occurrence chance is low. As commented by Jones and Robinson (2012), it can be done by managing the availability of resources and by proper implementation of information.
  • The other process in which risk can occur while outsourcing or in housing is flow of information process. That is, continuous flow of information process between supplier and consumer or customer (Jiwani, 2013). If flow of information is not proper then outsourcing or in housing process cannot be done properly by BP.

5. Recommendation regarding strategies adopted by BP for risks

In case of outsourcing and in housing of BP products and services they should try to maintain their relationship with other organization. That is, the organization with whom they have strategic alliance or other business relationship. In addition to this, British Petroleum should try to increase awareness of their outsourcing and in housing services. They should also try to implement new strategies and policies in outsourcing process after proper analysis. The risk mitigate can only be done when everyone is having proper set of knowledge regarding the process. The outsourcing process can have sustainability when flow of information and process is proper. In addition to this, the chance of risk can also be reduced by implementing new strategies regarding the process. The effectiveness of any process is dependent on quality of product and services delivered as well as flow of process.

6. Conclusion

The outsourcing in case of British Petroleum is done of their low strategic important activities. One of the major activity is IT based activities of BP, they outsource their IT based work to IT experts firms. It helps them to reduce their operational cost and increase their productivity by focusing on main work. The main business activity of BP is oil and gas exploration, production and others. In addition to this, in housing is done of different natural resources, refining expert employees and others. It helps them to increase their productivity as well as improve their product quality. The outsourcing and in housing process of British Petroleum involves three types of main risks, which are, risk in information flow process, risk in implementation of new strategies and polices and strategic alliance. On the other hand, while outsourcing or in housing product or services BP has to consider social, economical, ecological, technical and several other factors.

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