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Diffie-Hellman

Referencing Styles : APA | Pages : 21

Answer 1:

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Policy:

The Bring Your Own Device policy is important for organizations and corporation as it help the corporation control the usage of this mobile device which when left uncontrolled can be used by attacker to launch malwares and serious data breaches at the corporation if no formal policy is established (Wilkins, 2014) . It is therefore vital for organization to have some formal Bring Your Own Device policy in place. This report discuss the Bring Your Own Device policy of Sydney University and Victoria university focusing on the components of their individual policy which shall inform the report to formulate a bring your own device policy for the organisation. The Sydney University deals with a large number of students and stand who have access to the university network using their own devices. It is therefore vital for the university to have clear formal policy on the BYOD policy. The policy has the following components:

Security of the university data on this device was a key component of the policy. In this component, the university has defined what is considers as sensitive data through  their data classification schemes and use the scheme to define what each entity in the university domain can access what regardless of their device they using.

The second component to the policy defines what the IT department is mandated to do. It is clear the university has not completely abandon control of the employees and students devices. The policy has defined the minimum software recommended for the mobile devices to have in order to access some of the university critical systems and data. The role of IT in event of a cyber-security incident is again outlined in the policy document. This includes active incident response plans and disaster recovery mechanism in case of a cyber-attack on the university’s network that can emancipate from a breach through the mobile devices usage on the university network.

The third most critical component of the policy outlines the acceptable usage of the university’s network using the mobile device. This includes the acceptable usage of the university’s network infrastructure, data and systems. This has been strategically been put in place to avoid the university being liable in case its resources is used by rogue student’s to commit a cyber-attack or data breaches on other system which is not uncommon in most of the universities.

The fourth part of the policy outlines the university due diligence in terms of providing education and creation of awareness to ensure the students are aware of the dangers the devices which are not properly controlled can wreak havoc not only to the student’s own data but also to the university as a whole. The same applies to the staff of the university.

Victoria University, which was the second case study of the report, had more less the same outline in terms of the key components of the BYOD policy. The university has included a policy clause on monitoring of the user devices in terms of traffic exchanges between the user devices and the university systems and application. 

The personal cloud used by students and staff is again added to the policy where the policy has outline to take no liability for the user data in their own personal clouds

From the above case study, the following policy can be adopted by the university to properly managed the user devices

Policy audience and purpose: This policy addresses all the staff and the students’ personal devices which includes but not limited to smartphones, tablets and laptops hereinafter referred to as BYOD

General principle: Ensure the device your own is properly protected to safeguard its data

Policy statements: 

Users must set up passwords or passphrases for devices used in the university network

Users must ensure their devices’ software’s are up to date

Users must ensure the university data are backup in some way to ensure recovery in case of theft

Users must securely delete user and university data when no longer using the devices

Users must configure their devices to be able to remote wipe in case of theft

Users must ensure their devices have up to date antivirus on  their devices

Users must always disable wireless and the Bluetooth survives when not in use 

Compliance:

Failure to follow the policy can be used against the user when such devices is used to cause data breached, which has legal implication. This can attract a fine of not less than $500,000. The user may be subjected to disciplinary hearings, which may lead to dismal from the university

Answer 2

Zero-Day Attacks:

Zero data attacks according to security experts are deemed as the most dangerous security attacks in the cyber security domain (Zhou & Pezaros, 2019). A survey by (Vishal Sharma et al., 2017) indicates that nearly a third of corporations have been compromised by the zero day attacks in the past one year. These attacks are extremely costly as on average $7 million is spent on mitigating such attacks. This reports focused on some highly reported zero day attacks, how the zero day vulnerabilities are discovered and some mitigation strategies recommended by the report (Shaer, 2014).

A zero day vulnerability is a security flaw in software that may be known to the vendor of the but currently has no patch to it hence is risky since cyber criminals can exploit that vulnerability by writing zero day attack exploits. The terms zero day is used to refer to the newly learnt vulnerability in software. Since the developers has just learnt about the flaw, no proper patches or fixes has been developed, making it easily exploited by the attackers (Pierre et al, 2018).

The zero day vulnerabilities can be discovered by several means. First, security researcher can use their systems and application to discover the vulnerabilities. The researchers always try to seal the information on such vulnerability to avoid the bad people from knowing about it hence giving the developers time to write patches on the vulnerability. They may even go ahead and inform the developers of such discovered vulnerabilities (Nakao et al., 2009). Secondly, the developers themselves when doing the rotational patches onto their systems and applications can discovered a vulnerability, which currently they have not figured a fix for. This again is less threat to the users as the developers will try to keep the information a secret and try out some patches to fix the vulnerability. However, if the hackers use their tools to discover the vulnerability, they normally make such vulnerable public causing the rush between the developers and hackers (Huang, Siegel, & Madnick, 2018). The hackers will rush to exploit the vulnerability before it is fixed while the developers are trying to write patches and fixes for the same security flaws before a potential zero day exploits is exposed to the users. Such kind of zero day attacks have been reported widely onto the internet. The mostly publicly exposed was the stunt worm attack. The attackers behind the stunt worm used up to four zero day’s vulnerabilities in the windows operating system. The worm was targeted at Siemen’s PLC used by the Iran nuclear program (Radziwill, 2018). The worm exploited the four zero day vulnerabilities in Microsoft to breach the PLC of Siemens and make them function abnormally thereby not able to enrich Uranium for the Nuclear program of Iran. This zero day attack spread across the Internet and was discovered by the Kaspersky antivirus group who made their research public. It took Microsoft up to four years to fix the zero days making numerous computer system using the Microsoft OS susceptible to the stunt worm (Kerner, 2015).

The second zero day was attack on the Swift banking network where reportedly millions of dollar was stolen. This was first reported by central bank of Bangladesh where attackers taken advantage of zero day in Microsoft windows OS to launch attack from unpatched end points in the Bangladesh central bank systems as easily got into the swift network (Wojcik, 2014). This caused loss of millions of dollars due to the failure of the patching of the systems at the Bangladesh central bank system.

From the literature, it is critical for organization to organized mitigation strategies for zero day attacks, the report recommends the following strategies. First, the company should put limits on the type of email attachments that can be sent or received in the network. Second, install firewall to carefully scan the inbound and outbound traffic through the organization for any abnormally. Third, that should be well-established disaster recovery procedure in place in case a zero day exploit materialize.

Answer 3

Diffie-Helman Research

The diffie helman algorithm is utilized for establishing one secret key which can be used for the communication that remain secret at the time of exchanging data over the public network by utilizing the elliptic curve for generating the points as well as for getting the private key by utilizing the parameters. The diffie-helman key exchange algorithm can solve the following dilemma. Bob and Alice agree for sharing a secret key to utilize in a symmetric cipher. However, the only means of their communication is not so secure. Each of the pieces of the information that are exchanged within them has been countered by their adversary EVE.  How this is possible for Bob and Alice to share the key without informing EVE. For the first time this appears that, Bob and Alice this is appearing that the issues that are associated with the discrete logarithm problem for Fp gives a possible solution for the problem. The protocol is not in any used in exchanging the data in public key encryption but it is however used in exchanging the cryptographic keys which shall be later be used in securing the data being exchanges by the parties involved in the communication via the unsecure channel. This mechanism is particularly useful in case the two parties are using non secure channel like the Internet to exchange information hence needs a way to ensure even if the attacker gains access to the traffic, which they can easily sniff, the protocol shall ensure the attacker will have difficult time figuring out the keys used in the data encryption hence will not be able to breach the data on transit. 

In this protocol, the two parties creates private and public key pairs where the private key is only known to the party while the public key is published and communicated to the other parties involved in the communication. The protocol uses the concept of elliptic curves to ensure the keys i.e. private and public keys are different but mathematically related to each other in a sense that that the same unique private key can be calculated on both sides of the communication using the ones private key and the other side’s public key. The complexity of the algorithm relies on exponential modulo of the prime numbers sets.

The primary step for both Bob and Alice is to agree on huge prime p as well as one non-zero integer g modulo p. Bob and Alice create the values that are associated with g and p public knowledge; as example Bob and Alice may post the values on the web sites of them.

The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is such as approach for the encryption of public key in cryptography. On the basis of the structure of the algebraic of the elliptic curves that is over the finite fields. The curve is non singular in type which is the graph of it is having no self interactions or cusps. The Elliptic curve is shown below.

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