I expect that you will write about the topic that you have selected for your proposal and presentation.
However, you are allowed to change, refine or amend your topic. If you plan on making significant
changes, please let me know so I can ensure that there is no substantial overlap in people’s topics.
This is a research project. I expect it to take the appearance of an academic paper, refer to and
widely cite academic references such as scholarly journals and research books, and other
research work, and be structured as follows:
Find the theories or models that are relevant for the research question above. Describe the
salient characteristics of these theories or models and what the models conclude.
- Empirical evidence
Find some evidence that supports (or refutes) your conclusions in the above section. As you
know already, you may do this in two ways – either find some literature that points to the
empirical evidence of this theory/model and/or collect your own data and present your
evidence. As stated above, this can be done for any country or time period of your choosing.
The assignment must be clearly written; any diagrams, charts etc must be clearly labelled and
explained in your text and any equations defined and explained. The quality of your argument, the
clarity with which you explain and illustrate the relevant concepts and the way in which you relate
theory to evidence is very important here.
1. How do I reference two or three authors?
When there are two or three authors for a reference, include all their family names in the in-text
reference, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. Use the word ‘and’ to
separate surnames in the body of your sentence, and ‘&’ to do so in brackets.
2. How do I reference more than three authors?
If there are four or more authors, you should only use the first author’s family name in the in-text
reference followed by the term ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation for ‘and others’). 3. How do I reference when there is no author and/or no year?
When no person is mentioned, include the title of the source or the authoring/sponsoring
organisation in place of the author.
When no year of publication is given, use the abbreviation n.d. which stands for ‘no date’ in place of
a year, or give an approximate year preceded by a c. which stands for ‘circa’. However, be wary of
using sources without years as it is harder to verify whether the information is relevant or outdated.
4. How do I reference information from one author (Author 1) which I have found in a book or
journal article by another author (Author 2)?
Sometimes you will need to refer to authors whose work you encounter secondhand (i.e. mentioned
in other people’s work) rather than firsthand. You should mention both authors 5. How do I reference multiple sources by the same author published in the same year?
If an author has published more than one item in the same year, place a lower case letter of the
alphabet next to the dates in your in-text referencing to distinguish between these separate
6. What if there are two authors with the same family name?
Occasionally you will need to reference two different authors who share the same family name. To
avoid ambiguity, include the authors’ first initials after their family names in the in-text references7. How do I present exact quotations?
Short quotations of fewer than thirty words should be enclosed in single quotation marks (‘...’) and
be accompanied by an in-text reference including a page number where possible. If you are
referencing an online source without page numbers, just author and year will suffice8. Where exactly do I put the full stop when quoting and/or referencing?
Full stops must always be placed at the very end of a sentence, after the quotation and/or in-text
reference9. Can I reference two or more sources at the same time?
Yes. Use a semi-colon to separate the items in the in-text reference, and list the items alphabetically
according to their authors’ family names.
10. Can I paste the URL of a webpage into my essay as an in-text reference?
No. Harvard is an ‘author-date’ system. Follow the author-date in-text referencing conventions for
all sources. If you are unsure how to reference a website because there is no author or year
provided, follow the guidelines provided above for referencing sources without authors or years
11. How do I reference a reprint of a book?
In the case of a reprint of a book, use the year of publication, not the year of the reprint. This is
because reprint means the content has not changed so the same edition is being used. However, if
the book is revised, then the year of the revision is used as the content has changed in some way.
12. How do I reference family names with a prefix?
Family names containing prefixes such as de, van, von or De, Van, Von should be listed in the
reference list under D and V respectively. Thus if the author’s name is Melissa de Zwart, her name
would appear in the reference list under d (for de Zwart, M) not Z (for Zwart, MD). Also keep the
prefix as part of the surname in-text.13. How do I reference a name with a suffix?
If a name contains a generational suffix such as Junior, do not include the suffix in-text but identify it
in your reference list.
Similarly, names containing generational suffixes such as II, III, or IV should be referenced as above.
14. How do I reference hyphenated names?
If an author’s family name is hyphenated, include the hyphen in your referencing.
If the given name is hyphenated, include the hyphen in your reference list.
de Zwart (2012) notes...
de Zwart, M 2012, ‘NRL v Optus in the full federal court.
Smith, GP II 2012, Law and bioethics: along the mortal coil...