Enantiomers: Taking the understanding for the chemical compositions as represented in chemistry, has been regarded as an integral part of the stereoisomers, mostly one amongst the two, that usually can be found to be posing as the mirror images of each other. However, these mirror images would not be the exact mirror images as both of the structures would not be identical to each other. The enantiomers are actually chiral molecules. The molecules cannot be superimposed on one another. This means that these molecules are not possible to be placed on top of each other for providing the same molecules. Even with the process of reorientation, still the chiral atoms for the enantiomers cannot be made to appear as identical ones. The member of each of the pair in an enantiomer can be represented by the term enantiomorph, that usually translated to the word “opposite form”. The multiple features of the chiral molecules are presented in the enantiomers as the compound helps in the rise in the structure for the geometric forms and with this structure, there are few forms in the geometric representations that might include the possibility of the mirror image pairs.
Example: If taken as an example, the following molecules are considered,
It can be seen the molecules are the exact mirror images. However, in any case, both these molecules cannot be superimposed to each other. This is because, if one of the molecules is to be flipped towards the right by 180 degrees for the chlorine molecules to be aligned, then it can be found that the stereochemistry becomes different since it is clearly visible that the chlorine in one molecule becomes dashed and in the other molecule it becomes wedged. Therefore, the above-mentioned figure as described in the above diagram can surely be presented as enantiomers as the molecules are in the Wedged Dash notation.
Tetrahedral carbon: Tetrahedral carbon is mostly a carbon atom that has four hands or attachments having approximate bond angles represented by the angular distance of 109.5 degrees. The name tetrahedral carbon is derived since the shape that the carbon atom makes with its four attachments usually forms a structure that resembles the shape of a tetrahedron, which is a face that has all its faces as almost equilateral triangles. It can also be found that the carbon atoms achieve the required geometry according to its shape and figure by using the sp3 orbitals. The carbon atoms with its four hands and regarded as a tetrahedral carbon can also be called to form a stereo centre when the four hand or the four attachments of the carbon atoms appear be different than each other. There have been various methods regarded for the tetrahedral carbons as well for the relevance of the valence bonds of the carbon atom angles formed in the figure.
Example: One of the primary examples of the tetrahedral carbon can be considered as the Pentane compound that happens to contain four tetrahedral compounds one after another. In the Pentane compound, the tetrahedral carbons can also be represented in the form of the wedge dash projection. The carbons of the Pentane compound help in the bonding of the neighbouring atoms and therefore it consequently bonds with three different neighbours as a whole, forming over a trigonal planar.
Difference between an enantiomer and a diastereomer: In organic chemistry, there are various concepts developed for establishing the form of the differences between an enantiomer and a diastereomer. Understanding the clear concept of stereochemistry, the difference between an enantiomer and a diastereomer can easily be established. The simple concepts to find out the difference between an enantiomer and a diastereomer can be established with the formulated ideas. Following would be the differences as per the concepts developed in stereochemistry:
Four types of tetrahedral carbons: The four types of the tetrahedral carbons can be identified as the acyclic hydrocarbons, monocyclic hydrocarbons, fused polycyclic hydrocarbons and the bridged hydrocarbons.
Wedge and broken line structures: The wedge and broken line structure contains tow chiral carbon atoms are not representing any particular structure that may be regarded as the structure not being identical even being mirror images. Therefore, it can clearly be said that the structure is mirror imaged and identical in nature, therefore, the structure can not be represented as a pair on enantiomers. These can not be represented as diastereomers as well, since the chiral carbon atoms of a wedge and broken line structure is usually represented as a proper structure that is both identical and appear as mirror images to each other. Therefore, the wedge and broken line structure can not be represented as an enantiomer or a diastereomer as it is both identical and appear as mirror images when represented.
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