Health Project – Technology and Procurement Strategies Technology and Procurement Strategies In health services the term ‘technology’ can refer to arrange of things including biomedical equipment; drug and pharma therapies; models of care; medical and surgical procedures etc. A significant part of the costs and health economics of health system is major capital technology – technology that has high individual unit cost; has a long life-cycle; generally, refers to plant and equipment used in health service delivery. Task brief: Research and summarize an agreed understanding of what is major capital technology and what are the optimal health technology management strategies used throughout the world. From research, develop an effective planning, procurement and management outline (or approach) for optimal management of major capital technology in health organisations and health services. Word Limits and Report Length Estimated word limits for each section have been included and to be used as a guide. Total length or the report excluding appendices and references 8,000 words +/ 10% (800). CHECKLIST â–¡ Used the right template and followed its instructions â–¡ The report is impartial and balanced â–¡ Clear reasons and evidence supporting recommendations. The actions recommended are appropriate and achievable â–¡ Used plain English expression, including short, simple and active sentences â–¡ Write in third person tense so that the report is objective and authoritative â–¡ Quotes, paraphrasing and publications are correctly referenced using the approved referencing technique â–¡ Instructions and guidance is deleted from the template (including remove word count guides; add date in footer; modify any headings etc to suit the work) etc â–¡ The content is accurate and free from errors TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 3 Keywords 3 Introduction 4 Background 4 Question 5 Scope 5 Objectives 6 Methods 6 Literature Review 7 Results 8 Discussion 8 Conclusions 9 Recommendations 9 References 10 Appendices 10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is the abstract for the report. This section should be written last. The Executive Summary recaps what is contained in the body of the report. A structured Executive Summary must be written. Sub-headings to be used in this section. This section must briefly describe: ïƒ¼ Question/s: A succinct statement of the issues and problem being addressed. ïƒ¼ Objectives: Clearly state the main objectives to be delivered by the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Research study and Evidence-based review. ïƒ¼ Methods: Describe how the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Research study and Literature review was conducted. Explain the approaches used to conduct the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Literature review and Research study. ïƒ¼ Results: Provides the results of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Literature review and Research study ïƒ¼ Conclusions: Explains the practical implications from the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and Study. ïƒ¼ Recommendations: Identify the best courses of action and where to go from here Words 400 KEYWORDS List in alphabetical order five or six words that explain the main concepts, questions, discoveries or themes from the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Evidence review and Research study. Words 5 INTRODUCTION Set the scene for the reader – explain what the report will do. Draft this section first, however, there may be a need to refine and rework during the writing process. The introduction is one of the most important sections of the report and captures the attention of the reader. This section must clearly state: ïƒ¼ the intention and purpose of the report ïƒ¼ the main work completed and the methods used ïƒ¼ when it was completed ïƒ¼ who was involved and consultations that have been conducted Words 300 BACKGROUND Why is it important to investigate this topic? Write this section once having written the introduction. This section must summarize the context for the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. Include descriptive content and the background as to why the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project has been conducted. This section must: ïƒ¼ Explained for the reader why this study topic is important. ïƒ¼ Outlined the case for change, the need for the Evidence-based review and the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. Words 400 QUESTION What is the problem or issue being addressed? Write this section after the background. State how and why this issue has come to attention, the size of the problem or issue and identify for the reader any underlying factors. Questions must be stated in plain English with a clear focus on the core issues being investigated. Examples of questions asked: ï¶ What are the appropriate models of care for residents of aged care facilities? ï¶ How can patient flow be improved to reduce delays to patient journeys in emergency departments? ï¶ Is the workforce in rural health care organizations equipped to implement innovation in the workplace? This section must: ïƒ¼ State the study question/s clearly and succinctly Words 200 SCOPE States the inclusions and exclusions After writing the research and project question write the scope. Scope must be defined at the outset of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and be actively managed throughout the life of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. State what was able to be achieved and what wasn’t for the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Literature review and Study. In this section where appropriate, address: ï¶ Time-frame and Milestones ï¶ Tasks completed according to the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project plan ï¶ Risks and how they were managed ï¶ Costs and Budget for the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project For this section reader must be able to understand: ïƒ¼ What the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project attempted to cover and what was not able to be addressed Words 300 OBJECTIVES State the specific deliverables for the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. The objectives for the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and Study must be defined at the outset of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and this section to be written after scope. The Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project objective must be written so that it can be evaluated at the completion of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project to see whether it was achieved or delivered. For this section, project & study deliverables ïƒ¼ Must be written using the SMART framework and be Specific, Measurable, Achievable/attainable/agreed upon, Realistic and Time based. Words 300 METHODS How did you complete this Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project? Describe the design of the study and the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project management methodologies and approaches utilized. Explain limitations of the study procedures and methods. In particular: Evidence review: Describe the framework for analysis. Outline the search strategies utilized. Explain the inclusion & exclusion criteria that was used to evaluate the materials. Project: Describe the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project tools and methodologies used. Explain how risks were identified and managed. Research study: How was the study designed? How was data collected? What tools were used and how were they designed? This section must: ïƒ¼ Clearly explain how the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and Study was carried out ïƒ¼ State the rationale for selection of research methods and Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project management approaches Words 1,000 LITERATURE REVIEW What is known on the topic being investigated? Present this in an easy to understand and interpret format. Write this section after writing the objectives. Explain the evidence that was reviewed, quality of the evidence and synthesize this into main themes. The evidence identified in the search strategy should be read a number of times, the key themes identified as well as their impact and implication on the study topic. Clearly set out the criteria used to include and exclude materials and describe this in the methods section of this report. Look critically at the literature identified and assess the quality of the evidence. Peer reviewed journal articles, texts and reliable web-sites such as government, education and some organizational sites are acceptable. These are designated by .gov,.edu or .org. Evidence from ‘grey literature’ can also be important sources if used with discretion. Examples include conference papers/presentations, reviews and government/consultants’ reports. Consider each on a case by case basis and assess the validity of the authors and the content. In an academic report, some sources - such as this commercial web-sites (.com) and some organizational (.org sites) do not constitute a valid resource. List the kinds of publications reviewed. For example, 30 evidence-based journal articles, 1 Cochrane review, 2 reports, 5 systematic reviews, 3 newspaper articles. Evidence to be appraised in terms of the quality of evidence, generalisability, feasibility and sustainability. Significant or sentinel sources to be referred to but generally attempt to identify recent resources related to the study question. Depending on some topics or to contextualize, there may be a need to refer to older sources. The literature review findings to be summarized and included in an appendix using tables, figures or text. Headings in a table include: ï¶ Author ï¶ Details and type of source ï¶ Key Learnings & Recommendations from the source This section must: ïƒ¼ Explain the current state of knowledge in the area that is being investigated is identified for the reader ïƒ¼ Use high quality academic sources ïƒ¼ Describe the major themes on what is known on the topic, the gaps identified in the research, issues, trends and applicability. ïƒ¼ Assess the strength and weaknesses of the evidence Words 1,500 RESULTS State the principal findings from the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. This section should be written after the methods section. Clearly state what the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and Study has found. This must be done using text explanations and interpretations. Tables, charts and figures should be used throughout this section and must be referred to and labelled sequentially and appropriately. This will assist the reader to digest large volumes of data. Tables and graphs are exempt from the word limits. This section must: ïƒ¼ Label figures and tables sequentially and refer to them in the body of this section ïƒ¼ The reader must be able to understand the findings made by the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and their relevance and significance Words 1,000 DISCUSSION What did you find out about the topic being investigated and by completing this Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project? The discussion should be written once the result section has been finalized. This section must explain what has been learnt from conducting this Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. Open with a clear statement in relation to the study question that was posed at the beginning. This section must outline the strengths and weaknesses of the study and identify what aspects might remain unanswered and new questions that have arisen. Explain the reasons for the inferences that have been made. This section must: ïƒ¼ Clearly explain the results of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and Study ïƒ¼ Examine if the questions raised have been answered ïƒ¼ Outline areas for further work and research Words 1,000 CONCLUSIONS What do the findings mean? Finally, the conclusions and recommendations will be one of the last sections written to complete this report. Draw together for the reader the main findings identified by the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project. State why and how the intended audience needs to be motivated into action. Quantify and identify the opportunities and threats for health service policy, systems, funding and health organisations and the response required. The conclusion must: ïƒ¼ Draw together for the reader the main issues and demonstrate the ability to critically analyse, synthesize and impart the key messages. ïƒ¼ Leave the reader with an understanding of the key findings from the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and their impact Words 800 RECOMMENDATIONS Where to go from here? This section guides the reader and conveys what is needed in order to move forward and progress the findings of the Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project, Evidence review and Research study. Outline the action/s to be taken. This must be based on what was learnt by completing this Health Technology and Procurement Strategies Project and reflect the ability to critically analyse the work performed and identify the practical implications for health service management. The coherent set of recommendations must: ïƒ¼ Identify for the reader the main implications for policy, delivery of services and clinical practice. ïƒ¼ Describe how the findings are applicable to the health organizations and agencies. Words 800 REFERENCES List all the information sources that were used to prepare the report. This includes journal articles, books, appropriate web-sites, reports and other sources. APA 6th should be used. APPENDICES Appendices to be use to include information that supports the analysis in the report, validates conclusions and recommendations. Excerpts from this supporting information such as a data set to be presented in the body of the report. Examples include questionnaires, complex tables, transcripts of interviews, ethics approvals and complicated diagrams. Each appendix must be lettered or numbered for example Appendix 1, Appendix 2 and the order they are presented must be the order they are mentioned in the body of the report. The appendix must only include related information gathered through the research and relate to the purpose of the report and research.