Discuss why packet switched networks are used for data communication instead of circuit switched [3 marks].
(Show your working and give a short explanation for each answer.)
An ISP is granted a block of addresses starting with 188.8.131.52/16. The ISP needs to distribute these blocks to 2600 customers as follows:[10 marks]
a. The first group has 200 medium-size businesses; each needs approximately 128 addresses.
b. The second group has 400small-size businesses; each needs approximately 16 addresses.
c. The third group has 2000 households; each needs 4 addresses
Design the sub blocks and give the slash notation for each sub block. Find out how many addresses are still available after these allocations.
Consider the diagram below. Which of the two central routers (R1 and R2) is more critical for network operations and why? [3 marks]
TCP opens a connection using an initial sequence number (ISN) of 14,534. The other party opens the connection with an ISN of 21,732.[10 marks]
a. Show the three TCP segments during the connection establishment.
b. Show the contents of the segments during the data transmission if the initiator sends a segment containing the message " Hello dear customer" and the other party answers with a segment containing " Hi there seller".
c.Show the contents of the segments during the connection termination
Compare and contrast DCHP and the ICMP messages that were previously used for startup configuration. What are the advantages of DHCP that caused it to be the popular solution? [ 4 marks]