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Feminist Theories 2500 words essay with 12 references . sub topic: GENDER STUDIES AND WOMEN'S STUDIES Major Essay: this will demonstrate depth of understanding and engagement with the topic as follows: • Overview of the main theoretical issues and debates relevant to the essay topic • Clear demonstration of critical understanding and analysis of the theoretical issues and debates, supported by appropriate and critical use of the relevant readings • Well written, structured and organised, clearly demonstrating your grasp and critical understanding of the topic and issues and your development of arguments • It is expected that your essay would include at least 12 relevant references (Note: this count excludes reference to Wikipedia entries and online dictionaries). REQUIRED READINGS Canaday, M., 2003, “Promising Alliances: The Critical Feminist Theory of Nancy Fraser and Seyla Benhabib”, in Feminist Review 74 (Fiction and Theory: Crossing Boundaries), 50­69. hooks, b.,1990, “marginality as a site of difference”, in R. Ferguson, M. Gever, T. T. Minh­ha, & C. West (eds.), Out There: Marginalisations and Contemporary Cultures, New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art New York, 341­343. Threadgold, T., 2000, “Gender Studies and Women’s Studies”, Australian Feminist Studies, 15, 31 (March 1, 2000), 39­48. Walby, S., Armstrong, J. and Strid, S., 2012, “Intersectionality: Multiple inequalities in Social Theory”, Sociology, 2012 46, 2, 224­240 Gender Studies has been, in certain contexts and at particular times, a problematic nomination for women working in Women's Studies in the Humanities in Australia.[1] Gender Studies itself might now be read to include a number of different initiatives: the establishment of Centres of Gay and Lesbian Studies (e.g. Sydney University), the recent theoretical displacement in some quarters of Gay and Lesbian Studies by Queer Theory,[2] the issue of teaching and research around the subject of masculinities, and many other kinds of work that have gone on within Cultural Studies, Sociology and the disciplines in general which might broadly be given this name. It should be pointed out however that probably none of these groups would be entirely happy to be simply called Gentler Studies and that Gender Studies has often been viewed as a particularly uncritical way of silencing some of the major issues raised by, for example, feminist theory. Thus Ngaire Naffine, writing about feminist criminology, is still able to say in 1997, that: 'Gender is treated as a "specialist topic" ... and then we discover that this specialism actually refers to the study of women. ... The standard case is the study of men as non-gendered subjects and the speciality is the study of women as gendered beings.[3] This problematic is still central to all the major new research directions that may emerge in the Humanities in the immediate future. The term gender must come to include both sexes. In the case of Women's Studies and Gender Studies questions of current research strengths, gaps and absences, and possible future directions, are tied closely to this single issue and inevitably imbricated in the histories which have produced it. Women's Studies: Early Directions and Current Research Strengths The histories addressed here have been explored in some detail in the 1991 special issue of The Australian Universities Review (vol. 34, no. 2), again at a Women's Studies Symposium at the Women's Research Centre, University of Western Sydney in 1993, then in the book edited by Barbara Caine and Rosemary Pringle, and published in 1995, Transitions: New Australian Feminisms and viewed very differently in Gisela Kaplan's 1996 book The Meagre Harvest: the Australian Women's Movement 1950s-1990s. The same or similar issues have been constantly explored and reviewed in the journal of Australian Feminist Studies since its first issue in 1985. Prior to that a number of feminist journals were already recording early debates: the early issue of Refractory Girl established in Sydney in 1972, Scarlet Woman in Melbourne in 1974 and Hecate established in Brisbane in 1975. There have also been and are in place now significant initiatives to write that history in much more detail. To begin with there is the Oxford Companion to Australian Feminism edited at the Women's Study Centre, The University of Sydney, and the project: 'Sex and Citizenship: a History of the Women's Movement in Australia 1967-88' undertaken jointly by Associate Professor Susan Magarey, Professor Ann Curthoys (ANU) and Professor Marilyn Lake (History, LaTrobe University). Both of these projects have been funded by the ARC for three years. Earlier unfunded projects, relying on many hours of voluntary labour, included the Directory of Research on Women in Australia, published by the Women's Archive and the Women's Studies Programme at ANY and the 'The Violet Pages', a directory of Women's Studies researchers in Australia and New Zealand, edited by Lenore Coltheart, Shirley Fitzgerald, and Bronwyn Davies. The first edition was produced in 1988 through the Research Centre for Women's Studies at the University of Adelaide. It is now available from the Australian Institute for Women's Research and Policy, Griffith University. There have been various impediments to the conduct of research in Women's Studies, including lack of financial support within the universities. Ryan reports that between 1983 and 1988[4] Women's Studies still did not have its own number listed with the Australian Research Council and the Academy of the Humanities has been notably slow to put forward or to accept the nomination of scholars whose feminist or interdisciplinary work did not fit the established disciplinary categories. The Centre for Women's Studies in Adelaide was for many years prevented from enrolling postgraduate students. The answers to the questions: 'What is Women's Studies?' have not remained constant since the earliest Women's Studies subjects were taught in Australian universities in the 1970s. Early Women's Studies course development took it very much for granted that women were a unified group with a common experience. Diane Bell and Renate Klein's edited volume Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed still articulates this version of Women's Studies. However, as Allen[6] argues, for many women involved in Women's Studies by the 1980s, the agenda would not any longer have been argued in these terms. It was clear by then to many that simply adding women to existing knowledge structures had, and would have, little effect. The early initiatives which had emerged in the academy from, and in the context of, feminist activism in the community[7] had conceived of feminism as activism, as practice, as experience. In the course of the 1980s the work of feminist theorist within the academy radically unsettled this theory/practice dichotomy. The focus of academic feminist work became the academic knowledges and organisational structures which had proved so intractable to feminist interventions.[8] It was this that came to be seen as one of the key sites for social struggle and social and political change. Early issues of Australian Feminist Studies bear witness to some of these struggles in reports of conferences and research institutes and responses to them.[9] Nevertheless, by 1987, feminist research, work on gender and Women's Studies courses were already to be found in TAFE colleges and in secondary schools as well as universities and colleges of advanced education. The consequences of these differences have been that the objectives of Women's Studies have diversified, shaped by particular pragmatisms, financial restrictions, local needs and institutional specificities. The most interesting and far reaching of the rethinking of theoretical frameworks and of feminism itself would be the rewriting of the mind-body split and the rethinking of the sex/gender distinction.[10] These poststructuralist feminist arguments had radical consequences for the understanding of the gendered nature of knowledges, and even more significant consequences for the ways in which identities came to be understood as multiple, unstable positions which could therefore be negotiated and possibly changed.[11] More recently performativity has come to be an important concept, and one which demonstrates very clearly the necessary and almost inevitable interrelationship of feminism, Women's Studies in some forms, work on masculinities, and Gay and Lesbian Theory and Studies. This concept emerges from the work of Judith Butler, an American theorist whose book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity attempts 'to specify how gender operates as a regulatory construct that privileges heterosexuality and, furthermore, how the deconstruction of normative models of gender legitimates lesbian and gay subjectpositions'.[12] This work found rapid acceptance in Australia in the context of the internationally known Australian feminist theoretical work on 'volatile' and 'imaginary' bodies and on patriarchy.[13] Much more recently, and from a different direction, the focus of white middle-class feminisms as exclusive of difference and very much in need of rethinking in a neo-colonialist or postcolonialist context has begun to emerge as a necessary, if not yet well established focus in some areas of theoretical Australian feminism.[14] Almost simultaneously, the establishment of Cultural Policy Studies as an important branch of Australian Cultural Studies in the form of the Griffith ARC Key Centre, has helped to focus, and to support, a good deal of feminist work in policy related areas. The relationship between Women's Studies, feminisms and Cultural Studies is also close in many areas of cultural theory and research and teaching, although as suggested elsewhere, it seems that the impetus for feminist cultural studies in Australia comes from sources other than those claimed by the major male figures in Australian Cultural Studies as their interdisciplinary origins.[15] The 1980s: Teaching Producing Community In her editorial in the first issue of Australian Feminist Studies in 1985, Susan Magarey reported that since 1980, coursework master's degrees had been developed at the Universities of New South Wales and Western Australia, an honours bachelor's degree at the Australian National University, a national off-campus major in Women's Studies was offered jointly by the Universities of Deakin, Murdoch and Queensland,[16] and the Research Centre for Women's Studies at the University of Adelaide had been established (in 1983 with Susan Magarey as Director). This list does not include the far larger number of courses in universities which dealt with gender issues and feminist theory without being labelled Women's Studies. By that time, Women's Studies courses were also being taught in colleges of advanced education, institutes of technology and of technical and further education. Magarey also reports on the introduction of Women's Studies courses in secondary education, often as part of policies requiring genderinclusive curricula, and the inclusion of women's caucuses or Women's Studies sections in a large number of professional and scholarly organisations. In 1988, Magarey went on to report Women's Studies Centres formed at LaTrobe, Melbourne, Monash and Sydney Universities, new coursework postgraduate degrees being established by Adelaide and Hinders Universities and by Melbourne University. According to Ryan, by 1988, there were undergraduate majors offered at six universities and one college of advanced education and postgraduate programmes offered in three universities and three colleges.[17] During this period too Women's Studies developed strong links with many areas of community where women graduates were beginning to work. From the early association with women's refuges, women's health and the women's movement generally in the 1970s, there were now feminist bureaucrats (femocrats) and an increasing number of women parliamentarians in all parties, feminist lawyers and teachers of law, feminist educators, feminist artists and teachers of the arts and the performing arts. Gender was on government and public policy agendas. Looking Back from the 1990s: Diversification and New Research Directions When Gretchen Poiner reported on Women's Studies as a consultant for Macquarie University in 1992 she was able to confirm that: an overwhelming number of Australian universities now offer Women's Studies as a field of inquiry leading to the award of a degree. Of the thirty institutions for which information was recorded only five had no entry for Women's Studies courses at an undergraduate level. While ten offered Women's Studies units as electives fifteen had developed undergraduate programs. Further it is now possible to enrol as a postgraduate candidate in Women's Studies at nineteen universities.[18] Magarey, in 1993, added to this the Consortium of Women's Studies Research Centres (at UWS, Sydney, Deakin, Griffith, Western Australia, Adelaide), the appointment of the first professor of Women's Studies at Griffith in 1990 (Judith Allen), and the establishment of the first fully fledged department of Women's Studies at Adelaide in 1992. The Australian Women's Studies Association was formed at Adelaide in 1989 and has held large annual conferences ever since.[19] The Women's Research Centres at Adelaide, Sydney, Griffith and UWS publish newsletters, offer memberships Australia wide and/or have a web site, manage to house visiting scholars, run regular seminars, one-day workshops or conferences and are engaged in active programmes of research, publication and engagement with the community. All of these centres have adopted as a matter of policy the need to work with the community in ways that change or impact on public policy with respect to women's issues. The Griffith Centre has moved in the direction of Cultural and Policy Studies in line with the strengths of the Griffith Key Centre in Cultural and Policy Studies. This period has also seen the establishment of the Centre for Gay and Lesbian Studies at Sydney University. The school of Public Health at Curtin University has a certificate course in Men's Health and Edith Cowan University also teaches Men's Health. A number of significant men, located in strategic positions within the disciplines, have also advanced the teaching and research of issues around men, masculinity and gender. These include Denis Altman at La Trobe University, whose work on homosexuality has been seminal, Bob Connell in Sociology at the University of Technology Sydney, who has written on masculinities and has been engaged in AIDS/HIV research, and Gary Dowsett in Sociology at Macquarie University whose work has been in Gender Studies, and AIDS/HIV. David Buchbinder at Curtin University has been teaching an undergraduate subject called 'Masculinities' for a number of years in a literary context, and Michael Hurley at the University of Technology Sydney has been teaching about masculinity and homosexuality within the context of literary, and cultural studies. The Centre for Cultural Risk and Policy Studies at Charles Sturt University is also producing good research (by men and women) on media, AIDS, embodiment and gender. Much of the work on masculinity and on Gender Studies by men is hard to locate and not represented as yet by any one professional body. Consolidation and Transformation Since the early 1990s there have been a number of further developments, all likely to produce new and useful research directions. The Centre for Women's Studies at Sydney University has become a Department under the Directorship of Associate Professor Elspeth Probyn and more recently still has become the Department of Women's and Cultural Studies. Chilla Bulbeck has been appointed Professor of Women's Studies at the University of Adelaide. That department, following cuts and restructuring at Adelaide, has just become a Department of Women's and Labour Studies. In 1995, Professor Rosemary Pringle took up her position as Professor of Women's Studies and Director of the Australian Institute for Women's Research and Policy at Griffith University following the appointment of Professor Judith Allen to a Chair in the United States. Dr Wendy Waring became the Director of the Institute for Women's Studies at Macquarie University in the same year, 1995. Her institute runs an undergraduate degree, a postgraduate programme of research and coursework degrees, and provides a base for research in feminist and Gender Studies for staff and students from all schools at Macquarie. The work of Dr Gary Dowsett in the School of Behavioural Sciences, Sociology Department, Macquarie University, with its focus on AIDS and Gay Men's Culture is an interesting complement to the work of this institute. At the University of New South Wales the master's coursework programme in Women's Studies has one of the most interesting groups of scholars working on feminist and gender issues in the country at the moment in the form of the Department of Sociology, Culture and Communication within the School of Sociology. Feminist Philosophy, queer theory, new approaches to empiricism and technology, performance and creativity, ethics and embodiment all find their way into the work done in this space. The Women's Studies Centre at Monash University has just decided, in 1997, to change its name to The Centre for Women's and Gender Studies. This Centre has been particularly successful of late in attracting research funding for community-oriented projects, teaches an undergraduate programme and enrols postgraduate research students. Victoria University of Technology, through its Women's Studies programme, headed by Dr Barbara Brook and with the collaboration of feminist scholars from the Department of Social and Cultural Studies, is doing innovative work on the interface between Women's Studies and the community, working with Pacific and South Pacific communities. There is much more research to be done in the areas of Aboriginal and indigenous issues and multiculturalism in Australia which Women's Studies centres are increasingly well fitted to do. Dr Cate Poynton, Director of the Women's Research Centre at the University of Western Sydney, argues that UWS had, by 1994, seen the development of a new form of feminist cultural studies which: does not necessarily identify itself with Women's Studies as that discipline has developed in Australia, with its strong emphasis on empirically-based research grounded particularly in sociology. This new feminist scholarship focuses more on textual and cultural phenomena, and includes work on the media, on gender and technology, on the visual arts, all informed by current feminist, social and textual theory.[20] That reflects the opposition present in the early days of the establishment of Women's Studies within the universities between 'practice' and 'theory', but perhaps more than that between a monologic focus on white heterosexual women's UN-theorised 'experience' (even if quantified and measured) and the newer issues of Gender Studies, Gay and Lesbian Studies and Queer Theory, and later still of race. This centre clearly functions in the way that Susan Magarey suggests her Women's Studies work at the ANU did, 'drawing critically upon approaches and material characteristics of a range of specific academic disciplines, producing answers which transcended the boundaries established between any one discipline and another.[21] Poynton remarks on the importance of a number of recent appointments at UWS Nepean, in the Faculties of Humanities and Social Sciences and Visual and Performing Arts, and on the rapid expansion of postgraduate research in these areas, arguing that this conjunction of events has produced 'a critical mass of scholarship in feminist cultural studies'[22] at this university. The focus of the Centre then has come to be on language, culture and gender. There are exciting possibilities for collaborative work across the universities in the Sydney region, in all of which similar kinds of new work, breaking away from the established paradigms of 'Women's Studies' is going on. These kinds of conjunctions would seem to offer the most profitable research directions in both Women's and Gender Studies for the future. In a context of increasing corporatisation, and of the increasing commodification of knowledge, this radical work with the Humanities and Social Sciences has, however, actually had minimal effect on Faculties of Business and Economics, or on the corporate culture with which we are now forced to engage. Now it is the autonomy of the feminised Humanities itself, and equity for the women and men who work there, which is radically at risk from an economic and corporate culture determined to prove its own aggressive masculinity. Institutional change in such a gender context must be informed by the debates and theories that 30 years of women's and men's work on gender in the academy have produced but, at the same time, these theories and debates will need increasingly to familiarise themselves with the economic ideologies, the institutional and political struggles, and the very real social constraints and inequities once again facing women and men in Australian society. This is an urgent research problem. By far the greatest growth in Women's Studies and Gender Studies since 1990 has been in the postgraduate area. Postgraduate coursework master's degrees have for a number of years now graduated large numbers of students. There are few areas of postgraduate research in the humanities which remain untouched by recent feminist, social, cultural or textual theory. The saddest aspect of this is that this highly trained generation, in very real terms the fruit of feminist and theoretical labours of the past 10-15 years, may very well never find employment in a 'downsized' Australian university system. The consequences of this for changing the gender relations and teaching and research practices within the Humanities are considerable, not least because not all of these recent graduates are women and we badly need men trained to understand gender issues. Changing the Balance: Research Strengths There has not been one attempt thus far to change the representation of women in schools, tertiary education, politics or industry which has not begun with the assumption of women's inadequacy. The same can be said for Senior Women's Advancement Schemes within the universities themselves and the issue is relevant too to many kinds of feminist research that go on in the community, in schools and in the making of government policy with respect to equity and gender issues. Women's and Gender Studies within the universities have always been closely associated with these agendas. In 1990 Lesley Johnson wrote critically about the equal opportunity framework and the impact it had had on the framing of the Commonwealth Schools' Commission document, 'The National Policy for the Education of Girls in Australian Schools',[23] arguing that it was this document that had constituted women and girls as 'disadvantaged' educationally, and contrasting this approach with 'gender inclusiveness' programmes and the work of Walden and Walkerdine on girls and mathematics. For Johnson, both equal opportunity and gender inclusiveness, despite their contribution to significant and valuable reforms, are essentials. The work of Walkerdine and Walden[24] has been the impetus for important Australian work on gender in Education. Alison Lee's work in the secondary Geography classroom,[25] the work of Kamler, Maclean, Reid and Simpson on the first month of schooling in co-educational classrooms,[26] and the work of Kamler and Maclean on the gendered disciplining of first year law students[27] has all been crucial to a better understanding of the way subjectivities are formed and embodied in classrooms. Lee is currently working with engineers on similar aspects of that particular disciplinary process at UTS in Sydney. Green, Johnson and Lee have a large ARC grant to work on the disciplinary and gendered processes involved in postgraduate pedagogy. These kinds of research are beginning to provide the wherewithal to question earlier understandings of equal opportunity, affirmative action, and gender inclusiveness agendas and should be pursued with those connections in mind. This work has some very real implications and consequences for the future of the Humanities. As Johnson again points out, policy makers (including feminist policy makers) are still bewailing the fact that girls and women do not choose mathematics and science or engineering, still focusing on the unfortunate characteristics, and now choices, of the feminine. Gay Baldwin has looked at the consequences of these attitudes and policy directions for young men, asking why it is that we never think to try to persuade men to discard 'their unfortunate characteristics' and enter the Humanities and why we do not bewail the fact that they do not.[28] This is a serious question, not only in the context of the Humanities now, but also in the context of Australia as a democratic nation fast losing any sense of the importance of anything but economic rationalist ideals. To encourage more men into the Humanities, a newly theorised Humanities, might change the balance back to a point where social justice, and the values of solutions that did not have to be worked out today under the tyranny of urgency, might again hold sway. Unfortunately, but predictably, with hindsight, the equal opportunity agendas for moving women out of the Humanities have done nothing at all to increase the value of the Humanities themselves. In 1991, Judith Allen argued for staff development plans to educate men about disciplinary masculinism instead of putting women into Senior Women's Advancement Schemes. When these kinds of programmes do not work we call it 'the glass ceiling'. We do not call it what it is: a patriarchal system which is still difficult and ruthless, bullying even, for women to work in, its rules and regulations still too often structured around men's experience rather than men's and women's collaborative experience. This situation, as Gay Baldwin points out, also severely disadvantages the public cause of the Humanities. The feminist academics and the feminist and gender theory now available in the Humanities, now ready to engage with other theoretical positions from the disciplines are in an excellent position to research the many complex and unresolved issues that these questions of gender and education give rise to, and to provide an 'explicit pedagogy' for the Humanities which might also tap into the gendered nature of faculty cultures. An important future research agenda would be to make the need for this research explicit and shared by men and women. Gender is Everywhere: Some Conclusions Many of the new directions in Women's and Gender Studies have actually begun to confound the distinction between the Humanities and the Social Sciences. Feminist work in policy, in cultural policy studies, with government, and in communities, in law and legal theory, in social work and social theory, in education and pedagogy, all cross this larger boundary as well as the boundaries of the disciplines within the Humanities. It may well be that the current economic climate and the pressure to vocationalise and to serve markets will push the Humanities in general in these same directions where work in feminist theory and Gender Studies has already gone. There is not a single discipline in the Humanities, and probably not in the Social Sciences, which has remained untouched by the feminist work of the past 30 years. Gender is now on the agenda in all of the disciplines. There are then many new conjunctions of feminist and Gender Studies that may be made and should be made to happen in the future. There are many new conjunctions between these theoretical frameworks and others such as critical race theory, postcolonial theory, multiculturalism and cultural, political and social theory still in need of further research and development. Large policy issues such as Equal Opportunity Legislation and Sexual Harassment Legislation and policy as currently formulated are now in need of new research and new approaches. The relationships between freedom of information and anti-discrimination legislation and gender and race theory need more work. Gender and feminist work in the areas of language, text and culture is beginning to show signs of moving in new and interesting directions. There is room for much more research involving the collaboration between academic feminists and gender theorists and communities, and between them anti government, particularly in the policy area. NOTES 1. Lyndall Ryan, 'Women's Studies in Australian Higher Education: Introduction and Brief History', Australian Universities Review, vol. 34, no. 2, 1991, p. 4. See also the discussion of the issue of Gender Studies as a 'place for the taming of difference' and a place where men can instantly become expert on all aspects of men and women in C. Nadia Seremetakis, 'Gender Studies or Women's Studies. Theoretical and Pedagogical Issues, Research Agendas and Directions', Australian Feminist Studies, no. 20, Summer 1994, pp. 107-18. In her 1995 Report for an External Review of the Women's Research Centre at UWS, Dr Cate Poynton had the following to say, 'Finally the cynicism of many academic feminists (wherever located) towards new fields such as Gender Studies, is by no means unjustified. Feminists have good reasons for seeing these moves by male academics (1) to "muscle in" on an area mapped out substantially by women in the 70s and 80s and (2) by establishing gender-neutral terms (most obviously "gender" itself), as efforts to both masculinise and depoliticise the terrain.' 2. Annamarie Jagose, Queer Theory, (Melbourne University Press) Melbourne, 1996. For work on the Gay movement see: Denis Altman, Homosexual Oppression and Liberation (Angus and Robertson) Sydney, 1971, The Homosexualization of America: the Americanization of the Homosexual (St Martin's Press) New York, 1982; Gary Dowsett, Men who have Sex with Men: National HIV/Aids Education (Australian Government Publishing Service) Canberra, 1991; Gary Wotherspoon, 'City of the Plain': History of Gay Sub-culture (Hale and Ironmonger) Sydney, 1991; Denise Thompson, Flaws in the Social Fabric: Homosexuals and Society in Sydney (George Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1985. The complex relationship from the outset in the 1960s and 1970s between lesbian feminism, gay liberation and feminism is outlined by Jagose in Queer Theory in chapter 5. 3. Ngaire Naffine, Feminism and Criminology (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1997. 4. Ryan, 'Women's Studies in Australian Higher Education', p. 4. 5. Diane Bell and Renate Klein (eds) Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed (Spinifex Press) Melbourne, 1996. 6. Judith Allen, 'Women's Studies in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects', AUR, vol. 34, no. 2, 1991, 8-11. 7. Gisela Kaplan, The Meagre Harvest: the Australian Women's Movement 1950s-1990s (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1996. 8. The work of feminist philosophers and social theorists like Elizabeth Grosz, Moira Gatens, Genevieve Lloyd, Carole Pateman, Mia Campioni, Anna Yeatman and others was central to these changes. Genevieve Lloyd, The Man of Reason (Methuen) London, 1984; Elizabeth Gross, 'Love's Labour's Lost: Marxism and Feminism' and M. Gatens, 'A Critique of the Sex/Gender Distinction' in J. Allen and P. Patton (eds), Beyond Marxism? Interventions after Marx (Intervention Publications) Sydney, 1983, pp. 11349 and pp. 143-62; Carole Pateman, The Sexual Contract (Polity Press) Cambridge, 1988; Carole Pateman and Elizabeth Grosz, Feminist Challenges: Social and Political Theory (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1986; Barbara Caine, E.A. Grosz and Marie de Lepervanche, Crossing Boundaries: Feminisms and the Critique of Knowledges (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1988; Anna Yeatman, Beaurocrats, Technocrats, Femocrats: Essays on the Contemporary Australian State (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1990. 9. For example: The Report on the 1985 Women's Studies Conference at Sydney University (Diane Court, 'Women's Studies: Ghetto or Goer', Australian Feminist Studies 1986, no. 2, pp. 55-7) which expresses considerable anger at the failure of the conference to address the issues of work and sexuality which had been the main focus of 'the early Women's Liberation Conferences whence came Women's Studies' (p. 57). The reports in the next issue of the journal on the Feminism and the Humanities Year at the Humanities Research Centre, ANU, and of the three conferences held in connection with that year, indicate in places a similar discontent with certain kinds of 'privileging', of French theory over other kinds, of canonical art and criticism rather over performance and so on. (1986, no. 3, pp. 97-114). 10. Australian Feminist Studies, 1987, no. 5 and 1989, no. 10. 11. The work of feminist philosophers Elizabeth Grosz and Moira Gatens in particular has made these positions known to Australian feminist audiences. The intersections between this work and work in contemporary cultural politics saw the production of books like: Rosalyn Diprose and Robyn Ferrell (eds), Cartographies: Poststructuralism and the Mapping of Bodies and Spaces (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1991. This book was not specifically feminist, although much of its impetus came from the contemporary feminist theory around the issue of corporeality. It included the work of a number of men including Paul Patton and Geoffrey Batchen. 12. Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (Routledge) New York and London, 1990, quoted in Jagose, Queer Theory, p. 83. 13. Pateman, The Sexual Contract; Elizabeth Grosz, Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism (Allen & Unwin) St Leonards, NSW, 1994; Moira Gatens, Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, Power and C orporeality (Routledge) New York, 1996. 14. Barbara Caine and Rosemary Pringle (eds), Transitions: New Australian Feminisms (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1995. Sneja Gunew and Anna Yeatman (eds), Feminism and the Politics of Difference (Allen & Unwin) Sydney, 1993. Both of these collections, the first with all Australian contributors, the second with a significant number of overseas contributions, suggest new and interesting directions for Australian feminisms. In the first there are at least two significant new directions. The work of Ien Ang, now Professor of Cultural Studies at the University of Western Sydney, begins to question the ethnocentrism and privilege of Australian feminism from within. Other contributors bring feminist theory to bear on some new areas: art, music, technology, social policy, social geography and political theory. The Gunew and Yeatman book, continuing some of Gunew's important work when she was in Australia, includes writing by Australian Aboriginal historian Jackie Huggins, and addresses directly issues of racism, globalisation, migration and feminism as well as Australian multicultural women's writing and tile difficult question of the relationship between feminist theory, Women's Studies and postcolonial theory. 15. Terry Threadgold, 'Cultural Studies, Feminist Values: Strange Bedfellows or Sisters in Crime', Plenary paper delivered to the Australian Cultural Studies Conference: 'Whose Cultural Studies? Politics, Risks, Voices', Charles Sturt University, December 1995 (in press as part of the proceedings of that conference, edited by Paul Washington). 16. Kay Schaffer and Bev Thiele, "'There's Good News in the Mail!": Women's Studies by External Mode of Delivery', Australian Universities Review, vol. 34, no. 2, 1991, pp. 20-3. 17. Ryan, 'Women's Studies in Australian Higher Education', p. 4. 18. Gretchen Poiner, 'Women's Studies as Scholarship and Social Process', Papers from the Women's Research Centre Women's Studies Symposium, April 7, 1993, Working Papers in Women's Studies, no. 13, 1993, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, p. 5. 19. Susan Magarey, 'Women's Studies around the World', Working Papers in Women's Studies, no. 13, 1993, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, Women's Research Centre, p. 13. 20. Cate Poynton, Women's Research Centre, Report for External Review 1995, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, p. 14. 21. Magarey, 'Women's Studies around the World', p. 12. 22. Poynton, Women's Research Centre, p. 14. 23. Lesley Johnson, 'Gender Issues and Education', Australian Feminist Studies, no. 11, Autumn 1990, pp. 17-27. 24. Rosie Waldon and Valerie Walkerdine, Girls and Mathematics, Bedford Way papers 8 and 24, Institutes of Education, University of London, 1982, 1985. 25. Alison Lee, Gender, Literacy, Curriculum: Re-writing School Geography (Taylor & Francis) London, 1996. 26. Barbara Kamler, Rod Maclean, Jo-Anne Reid, Alyson Simpson, Shaping Up Nicely: the Formation of Schoolgirls and Schoolboys. A Report to the Gender Equity and Curriculum Reform Project, Department of Employment, Education and Training, Canberra (Australian Government Publishing Service) Canberra, 1994. 27. Alison Lee, Gender, Literacy, Curriculum: Re-writing School Geography (Taylor & Francis) London, 1996. 28. Kamler, Maclean, Reid and Simpson, Shaping Up Nicely: the Formation of Schoolgirls and Schoolboys. A Report to the Gender Equity and Curriculum Reform Project, Department of Employment, Education and Training, Canberra (Australian Government Publishing Service) Canberra, 1994. ~~~~~~~~ By Terry Threadgold Copyright of Australian Feminist Studies is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. .

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