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Nocturia Add in library

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Ahmed, a 68-year-old male comes into your clinic, complaining of weight loss and hip/pelvic pain over the past two months. He is an African-American man who migrated to Australia seven years ago. He describes worsening nocturia (five times per night) and admits to occasional blood streaked urine. He denies any urinary incontinence but states he has had a weak stream for many years. He lives with his wife, six children and mother, his father died 30 years ago of prostate cancer. The GP performs a ...

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Tags: Australia Melbourne Science Biology University of Melbourne Biology 


Case Study Discussion and Analysis

The patient is a 68 years old male who is suffering from prostate cancer with an enlarged nodular asymmetrical prostate. The aim of this discussion is to describe the link between Ahmed’s risk factors and aetiology related to the disease. The discussion will further consider the pathophysiology manifestations of prostate cancer, while justifying the recommended diagnostic tools and treatment modalities.

Links between Patient’s Risk Factors and Aetiology

As reflected in several researches, age is a major risk factor for the occurrence of prostate cancer. Other risk factors include dietary habits, lifestyle, race, genetic factors, and family history (Morigi et al., 2015). Considering the case of Ahmed, he is an African-American and 68 years old. In addition, he stated that 30 years ago his father died from prostate cancer. These factors have created major risks for Ahmed considering his age, race, and genetic factors. He is suffering from stage four malignant prostate mainly due to the mutation faced by the BRCA1 gene. Irrespective of many risk factors involved, there is no exact acknowledgment for what ends up causing prostate cancer (Taylor et al., 2010). Several factors might have developed the condition for Ahmed such as his age, his family history, and his race.

Pathophysiology Manifestations

In majority of the cases, the symptoms of prostate cancer do not become evident during the initial stages of the disease. There are different symptoms of cancer for different men and any of the symptoms may occur due to other conditions (Sylvester et al., 2007). Specifically, 

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