Its a Natural Science essay, Reference should be used scholarly journals. instructions is attached. And Topic is given below Essay Topic David A. Kirsch argues that the electric car failed at the turn of the century due to “consumer expectations and choices”. Identify another environmentally significant technology that has been shaped negatively by “consumer expectations and choices”, and discuss if these expectations and choices can or should be changed.A thesis should be argumentative, not descriptive. Here are two versions of one general thesis:
a) The automobile has caused significant environmental harm.
b) The automobile industry has claimed that cars are no more environmentally harmful than other forms of transportation when all costs and benefits are included, but evidence from pollution studies, waste management surveys and urban planning show that on balance, cars are the most environmentally harmful form of transportation.
a) is descriptive. It tells you something, perhaps something interesting, perhaps even something that you did not previously believe. But on its own it is not an argument; it is a statement or a declaration. b) is an argument, it has a claim (that cars are no more environmentally harmful than other forms of transportation…), and a counter-claim (other sources of data show that this is not true). An argument has to be *for* or *against* something. I have given you the framework for your argument in each case, it is up to you to work it out.
With respect to your thesis, you should ask yourself the following sorts of questions: is it clear, is it interesting, is it “big” enough to write a whole paper about? Generally, if the thesis is unclear, then I will have difficulty evaluating your paper, and your grade will suffer. An uninteresting thesis is also a problem, as your paper will likely be poorer if the thesis doesn’t even interest you. Having said that, don’t try to argue for something that is so complicated that you don’t really understand it, or something that is too ambitious for a short paper. In general, I am more impressed (and therefore grade higher) a paper that is simpler but clear and well written than one that is over-ambitious and hard to follow. Save the “redefining the field” paper for your fourth year seminar, give me something solid, well researched and relevant. On the other hand, if the thesis is too narrow then you won’t be able to fill up an entire paper on the subject. Whatever you do, don’t pad a paper with unrelated information, it will stand out. In each case it is important to make sure you are answering the question you were given, how you choose to answer it is up to you, but stick to the question as assigned.
A few other points, the thesis needs to be stated in the beginning of the paper, not necessarily the first sentence, but by the end of the first paragraph is good. The conclusion should summarize the argument very briefly, as this leads the reader back to the paper for ideas they may have missed. Expect to be refining your thesis right up until the end. As you go along the changes should be smaller and smaller, but event the last draft might have some small tweaks. If you find that your thesis doesn’t work anymore, then modify it before throwing it (and all of your work) away. The sooner you begin on this the more likely you will find problems and solve them.
a) Do not simply summarize the research material in your paper; this is necessary but not sufficient. You need to give me a good account of your sources, but you also need an argument about those ideas, summary is not enough.
b) Proofread for sense or meaning as well as for style, argument form and facts. This is why it is useful to get someone else to read your paper, it may make sense to you, but that doesn’t mean it will make sense to anyone else.
c) Make sure it is clear who your audience is. Assume you are writing for an intelligent student (so you don’t have to explain everything), but do not assume that your reader is an expert in the field (and thus that you don’t have to explain anything). Define any technical terms you use, but only use them if you understand them and they add clarity to the paper. Big words don’t impress me unless they add to the power of your argument.
d) Be fair to those you criticize, do not invent a weaker version of someone’s argument to demolish. As a matter of fact, the stronger the argument you attack, the more convincing your position, and the better your grade.
e) If you draw parallels between different cases (e.g. technological progress in US and Canada) be sure to draw distinctions as well, it gives the case balance and shows that you are being even-handed. The same argument applies to positives and negatives, if you are going to be critical about a position, try to find something worthwhile in it as well, or at least acknowledge its strengths.
f) Give your opinion in your paper; don’t just parrot your sources. However, your opinion should be backed up by arguments and facts.
g) Look for places where you say things like, “this just doesn’t make sense”, or that “this is obviously wrong”, and find another criticism, as these are too vague and just beg the question as to why this point didn’t make sense, or that point was obviously wrong. In short, “sense” is somewhat relative, and nothing is obvious.
h) Make sure you have provided references for all facts and ideas you get from others. Don’t plagiarise, if you are caught you will fail the assignment; if you are not caught you will have lost the opportunity to learn something. Either way, it is a lose-lose situation.
i) Do not introduce points without developing them, it frustrates your reader and makes it look like you don’t know what you are talking about. It also looks sloppy, like you did not finish the thought and failed to catch it in a reread.
j) Do not submit a final paper that is far below or above the word-length. Paragraphs should be indented (optional), pages numbered and the essay double-spaced with 1 inch margins and 12 point font. Font colour should be black on standard white bond paper. Cover pages are optional, headings are fine but don’t use them to pad the page count. Don’t leave large spaces in between sections.
k) Avoid the use of informal language (slang) in your assignments as much as possible. Also try to avoid talking about the paper in the paper (e.g. “when I was writing this paper I thought…) This can be done quite effectively by experienced writers, but it is tricky for those who are less certain.
l) Don’t capitalize randomly or for emphasis, do not italicize or bold words for emphasis; make your point explicitly. Check your spelling with the word processor but also do a read through on your own. There are literally thousands of words that will not spell check (e.g. steel and steal, lead and led, etc.), so a manual proofread is mandatory. Spelling mistakes alone are not enough to lower your grade, but if you make enough of them they impact the clarity of your paper, and this will lower your grade.
m) “All”, “none”, “every” and similar absolute words are very strong, and usually there turn out to be exceptions to them. As a good general rule, don’t use words like this unless you are very convinced that they apply in full force. Make strong statements; just don’t overstate your case.
n) Use a standard referencing style (e.g., MLA), but I am not concerned which one you use. Endnotes, footnotes, in text references, I am also not concerned. You should have a bibliography, but I will accept full references instead of a bibliography if they are done well. The main point to a bibliography, no matter what style you use, is that I can find the source, so make sure it contains (at minimum): author, title, publisher, year. For a reference, I need a page number as well, so I don’t have to read the whole book to check your reference.
o) Don’t pad a paper with excessive quotations; paraphrase wherever possible as it forces you to think things through. Single space and indent long quotations, and introduce quotations and say something about them afterwards, do not assume the reader knows why they are there.
A – Argument (/5)
T – Thesis (/5)
E – Evidence (/5)
C – Clarity (/5)
For each of these 5 is excellent, above average, 4 is good and well executed, 3 is solid but not necessarily inspired, 2 is somehow deficient or lacking, 1 is trying but failing consistently. 0’s should be reserved for not even trying or recognizing the significance of the criteria.
For argument, a paper that lacks one entirely (e.g. lists information but does not link it together for an argument) but still presents relevant information should get a 1. A muddied or confusing argument a 2. An argument that is relevant to the topic and well-argued but not necessarily convincing a 3, an argument that is relevant, well supported and convincing 4, and one that is these and adds to your understanding of the issue is a 5.
For thesis, a paper that has no clearly stated thesis to inform it, but still presents information relevant to the topic should get a 1. A muddied or confusing thesis a 2. A thesis that is relevant to the topic but too strong, too weak, mistaken in scope, etc. gets a 3, a thesis that is in the target area and accurate within its scope, a 4, a thesis that is in the topic area, accurate within its scope and insightful in some way a 5.
For evidence, a paper that lacks it almost entirely (e.g. only has two or three references in a paper) gets a 1. A paper that has sufficient references, but they are confusing, badly written or don’t convince you the student actually understands all of them, get a 2. If the references are clearly understood and presented in sufficient detail, but then used out of context or taken as too significant (or not significant enough) perhaps a 3. If the evidence is properly understood and used in a way that supports the arguments we have a 4. If this is done and the student uses the evidence in a particularly clever or thoughtful way, a 5.
For clarity, 1’s are reserved for papers where you are constantly re-reading passages to understand what is being said and failing, you can’t evaluate the thesis as you can’t determine what it is, etc. 2’s apply to papers where you can understand what the paper is saying but only after repeated rereading. 3’s are given to papers that are clear but perhaps confusingly phrased in places. 4s are well written, clear and concise. 5s are reserved for assignments that are particularly well written and flow in such a way that they are easy to understand and the thesis and argument remain clear at all times.
Grade out of 20