Part A Multiple-choice Questions (20 points)
For each question, select the best response.
1. (1 marks) The Recommended Dietary Allowances
a) includes carbohydrates, total fat, and protein.
b) are a basis for creating Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide.
c) includes vitamins and minerals.
d) a and b
e) all of the above
2. (1 marks) Trans fatty acids are
a) prone to oxidation.
b) an essential fatty acid.
c) produced through hydrogenation.
d) a and b
e) b and c
3. (1 marks) What is the name of the compound found in foods that can be converted into an active
vitamin form inside the body?
4. (1 marks) Health Canada recommends daily supplements of folic acid to which of the following
a) an athlete
b) a child
c) a woman of child bearing age
d) a teenager
5. (1 marks) Which of the following foods is not an example of unsaturated fat:
a) soft margarine
b) sunflower oil
6. (1 marks) Vitamin A deficiency condition is known as
d) night blindness.
7. (1 marks) By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except:
a) indispensable to body function.
b) not required in the diet.
c) needed in minute amounts.
d) an organic compound.
8. (1 marks) Which of the following would you consume with bread in order to maximize iron
a) Calcium supplements
c) Tea and a soy-protein burger
d) Beef, fish, or poultry
9. (1 marks) Who is the most likely to be in negative nitrogen balance?
a) An athlete
b) A hospitalized patient with cancer
c) A pregnant woman
d) A child
10. (1 marks) Osteoporosis risks increase with
a) being overweight
b) moderate daily exercise.
c) being underweight.
d) being obese.
11. (1 marks) The percentages of the Daily Values on food packages are based on a person requiring
________ calories each day.
a) 1500 to 1800
b) 1600 to 2000
c) 1200 to 1600
d) 2000 to 2500
12. (1 marks) Which one of the following foods is not a source of Vitamin B12?
b) Soy beans
c) Cottage cheese
d) Sirloin steak
13. (1 marks) What is the name for the scale that measures and ranks the extent to which a food
raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared to its response to pure
a) Insulin index
b) Glycemic index
c) Hypoglycemic index
d) Digestibility index
14. (1 marks) Evidence indicates that whole grains are protective against
b) heart disease.
c) type 2 diabetes.
d) all the above
15. (1 marks) Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention include
a) controlling energy intake.
b) increasing intake of salt-cured foods.
c) increasing intake of fruits and vegetables.
d) a and c.
e) a and b.
16. (1 marks) Which of the following list of chronic diseases/conditions are caused by lifestyle?
a) Appendicitis, common cold, obesity
b) Obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease
c) Dental cavities, obesity, leukemia
d) Type 1 diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis B
17. (1 marks) Compared to meat eaters, lacto-ovo vegetarians tend to have the following attributes
a) higher intakes of fibre.
b) lower BMI.
c) lower intake of phytochemicals from vegetables and fruit.
d) lower intakes of sodium
18. (1 marks) Drinking caffeinated coffee may cause the following health concern
b) increased calcium excretion
d) increase in iron absorption
19. (1 marks) Which of the following people would be least likely to have an elevated blood pressure?
a) A person who eats processed foods daily
b) An obese man
c) A person who drinks two bottles of beer per day
d) A regular jogger
20. (1 marks) What is the effect of obesity in the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)?
a) It increases the BMR
b) It varies from person to person
c) It does not change the BMR
d) It decreases the BMR
Part B True or False Questions (10 points)
Type the correct response (true/false) and support each answer with a written explanation in each
answer box provided.
1 point for true or false and 1 point for explanation
21. (2 marks) Since caffeine cannot cross the placenta, a high coffee intake during pregnancy is
22. (2 marks) Dietitians recommend low carbohydrate, high protein diets for weight loss.
23. (2 marks) Lacto-ovo vegetarians are often low in iron, vitamin B12, and vitamin D.
24. (2 marks) If adults eat 7 servings of Vegetables and Fruits per day, their diet will have adequate
25. (2 marks) Palm oil is a vegetable oil; it contains no cholesterol. It can be recommended in a diet
to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
Part C Diet Evaluation (20 points)
26. (3 marks) Barbara is a 37 –years-old female, low active, with family history of type 2 diabetes. She is 1.65 m (65") tall and weighs 68 kg (150 lbs.). Calculate Barbara’s Body Mass Index-BMI (show your calculations). Discuss how it compares to the BMI risk classification and discuss the implications for her health.
27. (5 marks) According to the Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide, classify the foods in Barbara’s diet into food groups, oils/fats (added unsaturated fats) and limited foods. Estimate their serving sizes and calculate the total number of servings per food group. Breakfast: 2 slices of white toast, 1 tbsp. (15 ml) of hard margarine; 1 tbsp. (15 ml) of honey; 1/2 cup (125 ml) of apple juice; 2 cups (500 ml) of coffee; 1 tbsp (15 ml) of 2% milk.
Lunch: Macaroni salad made with 1 cup (250 ml) of refined macaroni; 1 cup (250 ml) of iceberg lettuce and 2 tbsp. (30 ml) of mayonnaise containing canola oil.
Afternoon snack: 4 commercial chocolate cookies and 1 bag (70 g or 2.5 oz.) of potato chips
Dinner: Cheeseburger made with 75g or 2.5 oz. of regular beef patty; 1 slice (25 g or 1oz.) of processed cheese; 1 large hamburger bun; 1 tbsp. (15 ml) of ketchup.
Evening snack: 355 ml of Coke and 2 small pieces of chocolate cake with icing.
4 cups of water throughout day (1L)
28. (3 marks) According to the Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide, what are the recommended numbers of servings for Barbara: 37-years-old female, low active level with family history of type 2 diabetes?
29. (3 marks) In which food group(s) is Barbara not achieving or exceeding the recommended number of servings? Name this (these) food group(s). Refer to your answers in questions 27 and 28.
30. (6 marks) Based on the food groups in which Barbara is not achieving or exceeding the recommended number of servings, discuss the nutrients that may be inadequate or excessive in her diet.
How can Barbara improve the intakes of these nutrients to achieve a healthy diet and reduce her risks of developing type 2 diabetes in the future?
Part D Short Answer Questions (30 points)
31. (30 marks) In the answer boxes provided (a - c), complete three (3) groups of the following four group questions. Answer all parts of each chosen question.
_ Bailey’s food record shows she eats 304 grams of carbohydrate and consumes 2540 calories per day. Calculate her percentage of calories from carbohydrate and show your calculations.
Discuss how this result compares with the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.
_ Explain two reasons why maintaining a healthy weight range lower risks of heart disease?
_ Identify the two forms of dietary iron and list two food sources of each. (3 points)
_ Discuss the relationship of sodium and potassium in processed foods. (2 points)
_ Discuss three roles of fiber in preventing colon cancer. (3 points)
_ Compare and contrast osteomalacia and rickets. Include their causes and the population groups affected. How can each be prevented? (3 points)
_ Briefly explain four reasons why high fat and high sugar foods contribute to obesity. (4
_ Define intervention study and explain how its results should be interpreted. (4 points)
_ List four strategies to prevent vitamin and mineral losses during home cooking. (2 points)
_ Discuss two adverse and two beneficial effects of alcohol consumption. (4 points)
_ Discuss four functions of calcium apart from its roles in bones and teeth. (4 points)
_ Briefly discuss four nutritional reasons for the observation that lacto-ovo vegetarians as a population group have lower rates of heart disease than the average population. (4 points)
_ Briefly describe two roles of Vitamin A. (2 points)