The research report will be based on an experiment that will be conducted in a tutorial on speed reading. It will be composed of an abstract, introduction, method, results and discussion section. I have already attempted to write some sections of the report but am not confident with this psychology subject so need your help to gain the best possible mark in order for me to pass this subject overall.Evaluation of Speed Reading Application – Spritz
As there are never enough hours in the day, we are always looking for areas in our lives where we can save time. Much of our daily lives, especially as students is taken up with reading. The ability to speed read is therefore attractive. Spritz is a current application to facilitate speed reading. Its advantage is that no prior learning is needed and the computer application does the work for you.
On the Spritz web site (http://www.spritzinc.com/the-science/), they say:
'With each new word, your eyes move, called a “saccade”, and then your eyes seek out the "optimal recognition point" (ORP) for that word. Once the ORP is found, processing the word for meaning and context occurs and your eyes move to the next word. When reading, only around 20% of your time is spent processing content. The remaining 80% is spent physically moving your eyes from word to word and scanning for the next ORP.'
Spritz is based upon restricting “inefficient” saccades and reducing ORP search. Normal reading is reliant upon saccadic eye movements, whereas optimal recognition points are yet to be confirmed empirically.
Does Spritz allow us to read and comprehend written text more efficiently than normal reading? If so, is this efficiency due to the restriction of saccades, the reduction in ORP search time, or both?
After completing a practice passage, participants will be required to read text in the different conditions and answer comprehension questions following a practice passage. The conditions will be counterbalanced across campuses.
1. Reading normal text (requires both saccades and ORP search)
2. Reading Spritz text (requires neither saccades nor ORP search)
3. Reading normal text with highlighted ORPs (requires saccades but no ORP search)
Initial Recommended Readings
Robin, S., & Turano, K. (1992). Reading without saccadic eye movements. Vision Research,
Schotter, E., Tran, R., & Rayner, K. (2014). Don’t believe what you read (only once):
Comprehension is supported by regressions during reading. Psychological Science, 25, 1218-1226. doi 10:1177/095679761453114
PSCY205: Stimuli for Laboratory Report
1A – normal text practice (Czar’s family)
1 B – normal text test (Marie Antoinette)
2A Spritz text practice (Czar’s family)
2B Spritz text test (Marie Curie)
3A ORP text practice (Czar’s family)
3B ORP text test (Magellan)
Order of presentation
Brisbane group condition order: 1, 2, 3
Melbourne group condition order: 2, 3, 1
Sydney group condition order: 3, 1, 2
250 words long; 3 paragraphs; 14 sentences
Passages use comparable vocabulary and sentence structure hence similar in complexity and level of understanding
5 comprehension questions of similar standard, namely direct recollection of facts
To assess comprehension of read text in the different conditions
Presented on central screen
Presentation rate for all conditions 300 words per minute
One of the most intriguing stories of the Russian Revolution concerns the identity of Anastasia, the youngest daughter of Czar Nicholas II. In1918, the Bolsheviks overthrew the government and murdered the czar and what was thought to be his entire family. There were rumours suggesting that Grand Duchess Anastasia had survived. Perhaps the most famous claimant was Anastasia Tschaikovsky, who was also known as Anna Anderson.
In 1920, a terrified young woman was rescued from drowning in a Berlin river and spent two years in a hospital, where she attempted to reclaim her health and shattered mind. Eight years later, however, she claimed that she was Anastasia. She said that she had been rescued by two Russian soldiers after the czar and the rest of her family had been killed. During the next few years, scores of the czar's relatives, ex-servants, and acquaintances interviewed her. Many of these people said that her looks and mannerisms were evocative of the Anastasia that they had known. Her grandmother and other relatives denied that she was the real Anastasia, however.
Tired of being accused of fraud, Anastasia immigrated to the United States in 1928 and took the name Anna Anderson. She still wished to prove that she was Anastasia, though, and returned to Germany in 1933 to bring suit against her mother's family. There she declaimed to the court, asserting that she was indeed Anastasia and deserved her inheritance. In 1957, the court decided that it could neither confirm nor deny Anastasia's identity.
1. Witnesses ______ that all members of the czar's family had been executed.
A. gave assurance
D. convinced some
E. Answer not available
2. Tschaikovsky was originally found in ___________________.
E. Answer not available
3. Which relative specifically denied Anna Tschaikovsky was part of the Czar’s family?
A. her father
B. her grandmother
C. her mother
D. her husband
E. her daughter
4. When Anna migrated to the USA, she took the surname of _______________
D. None of the above
E. not mentioned
5. In which court did she claim she was Anastasia and deserved her inheritance.
E. Answer not available
Passage 1 Marie Antoinette (normal text)
King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ruled France from 1774 to 1789, a time when the country was fighting bankruptcy. The royal couple did not let France's insecure financial situation limit their immoderate spending. Even though the minister of finance repeatedly warned the king and queen against wasting money, they continued to spend great fortunes on their personal pleasure. This lavish spending greatly enraged the people of France. They felt that the royal couple bought its luxurious lifestyle at the poor people's expense.
Marie Antoinette, the beautiful but exceedingly impractical queen, seemed uncaring about her subjects' misery. While French citizens begged for lower taxes, the queen embellished her palace with extravagant works of art. She also surrounded herself with artists, writers, and musicians, who encouraged the queen to spend money even more profusely.
While the queen's favourites glutted themselves on huge feasts at the royal table, many people were starving. The French government taxed the citizens outrageously. These high taxes paid for the entertainments the queen and her court so enjoyed. When the minister of finance tried to stop these royal spendthrifts, the queen replaced him. The intense hatred that the people felt for Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette kept building until it led to the French Revolution. During this time of struggle and violence, thousands of aristocrats, including the king and queen themselves, lost their lives at the guillotine. Perhaps if Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had reined in their extravagant spending, these events would not have occurred.
1. The people surrounding the queen encouraged her to spend money ______.
2. The minister of finance tried to curb these royal ______.
B. money wasters
Marie Antoinette lavishly spent money on _______________
A. extravagant works of art
B. fad diets
D. lower taxes
4. The Queen’s favourites included:
E. English royalty
5. During the French Revolution, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were killed along with
A. English royalty
B. other French aristocrats
C. champions of the poor
Passage 2 Marie Curie (Spritz)
Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a professor of physics. At an early age, she displayed a brilliant mind but could not continue her education in Warsaw as they were closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French university, where she earned her master's degree and doctorate in physics.
Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day, one of whom was Pierre Curie. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. Together they discovered radium, an element widely used for treating cancer, and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. Soon after, Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon in 1906. Marie endured heartbreaking anguish and her distress was greatly increased because she had two young daughters to raise by herself.
Curie's was asked to succeed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium. Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium, she never became disillusioned about her work. Regardless of the consequences, she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world.
1. Marie left Poland and travelled to France to enter the Sorbonne because.
A. she had met Pierre Curie
B. it had always been her dream
C. of her father
D. women were not allowed to enter universities in her homeland
E. Answer not available
2. Marie left Poland with
D. low levels of commitment
3. What year were Pierre and Marie Curie married?
E. they were never married
4. How many daughters did the Curies have?
E. only sons
5. Even though she became fatally ill from working with radium, Marie Curie was never _________.
Passage 3 Magellan (ORP)
In the 16th century, an age of great marine and terrestrial exploration, Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to sail around the world. A papal decree of 1493 had assigned all land in the New World west of 50 degrees West longitude to Spain. Magellan offered to prove that the East Indies fell under Spanish authority. On September 20, 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships. More than a year later, one of these ships was exploring the topography of South America in search of a water route across the continent. This ship sank, but the remaining four ships searched along the southern peninsula of South America. Finally they found the passage they sought near 50 degrees South latitude, which today is known as the Strait of Magellan.
One ship deserted while in this passage and returned to Spain. The remaining sailors were privileged to gaze at that first panorama of the majestic Pacific Ocean. Those who remained crossed the meridian now known as the International Date Line in the early spring of 1521 after 98 days on the Pacific Ocean. During those long days at sea, many of Magellan's men died of starvation and disease.
Later, Magellan was killed in a tribal battle in the Phillipines. One ship and 17 sailors under the command of Basque navigator Elcano survived to complete the westward journey to Spain. They were the first to prove once and for all that the world is round, with no precipice at the edge.
1. The 16th century was an age of great ______ exploration.
D. common man
E. None of the above
2. What type of decree gave all land in the New World west of 50 degrees longitude to Spain?
E. none of the above
3. How many ships set sail on Magellan’s voyage?
4. Some of Magellan’s men perished from ________
A. tribal conflict
C. internal conflict
D. starvation and disease
E. All of the above
5. The ship that proved the world was round was under the command of ________
C. Emperor Charles V of Spain
D. unknown sailor
E. None of the above
ADDITONAL INFORMATION FROM LECTURER:
On a page by itself
Around 120-150 words
Provides a summary of : why, what you did, to whom, and what you found and what that tells us
Why? (Purpose/background of study): The perception of time is an integral part of our everyday lives but there is a paucity of research examining the factors that influence this important construct
What you did and to who: (participants and methodology) The current research investigated the perception of time and its relationship to workload, through a cross sectional survey of undergraduate students (N=150).
What you found (results): Results indicated that there was a strong positive relationship between workload and the perception that time was moving quickly.
What this tells us (implications/conclusions): These results have important implications for managing workloads, to ensure that students perception of time flying is minimised.
Start on new page
Very important part of report as sets up the whole logic and rationale. You need to present a case for your research. So the introduction is a critical argument for why you did what you did and not just a review of the literature.
Begin with a context setting paragraph, what is the main issue your study addresses and why important
E.g. The perception of time has long been of interest to scientists. However, it appears that impact of time perception may be greater than was anticipated with recent research showing that if large groups simultaneously experience the perception that time is moving faster, days may actually get shorter (Smith & Jones 2010). Little research to date has examined what factors are associated with time perception. Such research may provide important information on mechanisms that can be used to stop time getting faster. Research using social perception theory from a social psychological perspective can aid our understanding of group perceptions and may provide a way to understand this phenomenon of time perception from a group perspective.
Then present a review of the literature on this topic and the theory you have chosen to help understand this topic.
Talk about any research on the broad area of interest
Talk about your broad theory then funnel down to how used in this particular context.
Funnel from broad to specific (remember you are creating an argument/rationale for your study
Each paragraph should have a point (ask yourself when you reread your intro, did that paragraph add to my argument?)
Use linking sentences between paragraphs to emphasise the point that paragraph is making
At the end of the introduction have a section on the current study,
It should be obvious from reading your introduction why you are conducting the current study, if you have made good links and summaries at the end of each paragraph, it is easy to bring them together and summarise your argument here.
This section is where you bring together your argument, what you are doing, and why (gap in research, conflicting theories, practical importance).
What is the major aim/purpose of the study.
What are the variables you are interested in (what is your IV, DV)
Broadly, how you will examine them
If you can, make specific hypothesis about the relationship you expect to find between these variables
This must be based on past findings or theory
H1:Based on the findings of Greg and Smith (2010), it is hypothesised that as workload increases, the perception of time will move faster.
H2:Based on social perception theory (Smith & White, 2005), it is hypothesised that this relationship will be strengthened as individual’s become more aware that this perception is shared by others.
Remember to use past tense, this is what you did
Use main headings and subheading if you need them
Participants ( who were they, how many, age, gender, etc how did you access them)?
Participants were 150 undergraduate students who participated in the study for course credit. There were 70 males and 80 females, ranging in age from 17 to 57 years (M = 21.70, SD 2.37).
What were the materials used in the study, maybe things like stop watches, stimulus material, includes the measures in the survey. (If there are many materials may separate materials and measures)
State clearly what the IV and the DV were
What the overall design of the experiment was. (Was it a between/independent groups or a repeated measures design or a correlational design).
How were participants allocated to groups
What instructions were given to participants
Describe any experimental manipulations
Describe any control measures
Give enough details of what you did for it to be replicated
e.g. To examine the effect of the independant variable workload on the dependant variable time perception, a between groups experimental design was used. Participants were invited to meet with the researcher individually in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two workload conditions. Participants in the small workload condition were
given a series of 5 simple tasks to complete (see Appendix A). Participants in the high workload condition were given a series of 10 difficult tasks to complete (see Appendix A). At the completion of the tasks, participants were asked to rate how long it had taken them to complete the tasks. Objective time completion measures were also taken.
Results – already completed by teacher.
Start with a paragraph that summarises your results and tells the reader whether they supported or did not support your hypothesis.
Relate these finding to those of past research you discussed in the introduction
(e.g. these results are line with Jones and Smith (2010) who found...; these results are contradictory to Able and Green (2005) who found..., but are in line with more recent research such as... )
Please link your findings with the theory and research you set out in the introduction, where do your findings fit with past research
What are the implications of your findings, what do your findings mean in terms of theory and practice
Discuss methodological limitations of your research (why limitations and the impact they may have had, be sensible and think in terms of the research, do not look for just anything but things that may have had a real impact (e.g. The use of an undergraduate student sample may impact on the generalisability of these results to non student populations, as students may be under more time pressure than the general population)
Suggest future research: this may come from methodological limitations of current study, or from something that will extend the current research e.g. A different population, an applied setting (e.g. The current research shows a clear association between workload and time perception in a student sample. Future research needs to be conducted on non student populations to examine if this association exists in more general populations)
Finish with a nice strong concluding paragraph, that summarises main finding, the research contribution to theory and any real world implications of your work.