What is meant by prophase? State and describe its stages in detail.
The first stage of mitosis is the prophase. It is the method which helps in the separation of the identical genes which is carried inside the nucleus of the original parent cell into two duplicate copies of daughter cells. During the process of prophase, the complex material of the DNA and protein which is inside in the nucleus is termed as the chromatin. The coils of the chromatin start condense and become compact and it is easily available, which result in the formation of chromosomes which is visible. Chromosomes is made up of a piece of DNA which is well organized. The chromosomes which is replicated forms the X-shape and are called the sister chromatids. The duplicate copies of the DNA consist a joint at a point which is termed as the centromere. After which the formation of a mitotic spindle starts. The mitotic spindle is made up of long tube of protein which is termed as microtubules. The formation of the microtubules is observed at the opposites ends of the cell. The sister chromatids are separated with the help of the spindle into two independent cells. There is an another and second phase of the mitosis which is called prometaphase. In this phase the envelope of the nucleus breaks down and leads to the formation of strands of chromatin into chromosomes. It helps in the formation of a complete new cells for each and every part of the bodies. It can be any part of the body such as the cell of the skin, blood cells, the different cells which helps in the formation of the tissues and so on. It is the cell division which helps in the formation of the sex cells which is the egg cell or the sperms. Most of the time of the cell is spend in the process of prophase. It helps in the exposure of the chromatin. In the initial stage the layer surrounding the nucleus starts to disintegrate. The formation of the different part plays a major role as it gives rise to the formation of two independent cells. The prophase comprises of the different stages which helps in the formation of the cells.
The prophase comprises of five different stages. The first stage is the leptotene. In this stage it is observed that the volume of the nucleus increases. It helps in the formation of the astet. It is also known as the thin thread phase. The second stage is known as the zygotene. This is also known as the yoked thread stage. In this stage it is observed that the pairing happens. The pairing of the homologous chromosomes happens and forms the bivalents. The further condensation process takes place and the chromosomes start moving away from the asters. The third stage is the pachytene which is also called the thick thread stage. In this stage it is observed that the exchange between the different genes occurs and the crossing over the two non-sister’s chromatids happens. the chromosomes of the homologous pair of the chromosomes happens at this point. The fourth stage is the diplotene which is also termed as the double thread stage. In this stage the bot5h the nucleoli and the nuclear membranes start disappearing. The last and the fifth stage is the diakinesis which is also termed as the terminalisation and the completing stage. In this stage the spindle fibers are formed and the two daughter cells are separated to form two different cells. In the very first stage all the chromosomes are visible under the microscope and each of the sister chromatids gets attached to the envelope of the nucleus. It is one of the shortest stage of the prophase. In the phase of zygotene a synapsis is formed and it allows the chromosomes to contact at different poi t which is known as the synaptonemal complex. After the synapsis of the homologous pair they are either known as the tetrads or the bivalents. The bivalent is mostly known as the advanced level as it is preferable and similar in states. In the pachytene stage the genetic material is increased as the chromosomes which are present exchanges their genetic material from the parent cells. In this stage the separation of the two sister chromatids take place. In this phase the alleles cross each other. In the diplotene the chromosomes which are present uncoils. However, the coiling stays in a way that it is enough to understand the distinct image of the formation of chiasma under the microscope. However, the prophase is one of the important phase of cell division.
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