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Convection In Science: Equation For Convection -Examples Of Convection In Everyday Life

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Convection is the reason why it is impossible to touch a pot of boiling water but when another glass just having the hot water is touched it is not as impossible starting a boiling pot of water. In the language of science, this happens because of convection. There are three major types by which transfer of heat occurs and that mostly are radiation, conduction and convection. Connection out of all three is the only type of heat transfer which only occurs in cases of liquids and glasses since it is the liquids and gases who physically start moving with the transfer and rejection of heat.

Convection literally occurs when there is a difference in the temperature between the two parts in a liquid or a gas. It may occur that the hot part of the fluid has risen and cool part of the liquid has sunk in. For example, it can even be seen that when a simple kettle has been put on the stove for making a cup of tea the fire beneath the kettle starts heating the water inside right from the bottom. This gives the molecules near the bottom containing the liquid more kinetic energy that helps in the movement of the liquid. Convection is just not only the heat transfer that happens in the bulk movement of the molecules in cases of liquids and gases but also in some form of other fluids like molten rocks. It includes the mechanism of advection which is bulk transfer of heat flow in a specific direction and diffusion which is the transfer of the energy or mass particles along the concentration gradient which normally do not happen in a specific direction. There is a reason that convection has no occurrence in the solids since the bulb flow of current is not significant in in solid state. All the rigid solids also have diffusion of heat however they are not regarded as convection but as heat conduction. It may also occur that thermal convection is demonstrated with the help of the placement of a heat source with a glass filled with liquid on top of it and then the changes can be observed in the temperature with the warmer fluid circulating around the cooler areas. It is regarded as one of the most major types of transfer in heat and mass transfer in fluids as well. The heat and mass transfer that happens due to convection with the help of diffusion happens due to the motion of the individual particles in the fluid, which is mostly regarded as the Brownian motion. With the help of advection, heat is transported through larger scale motion of currents within a fluid. The extra movement that happens inside the liquid also allows the molecules to spread apart from each other a little. When the molecules are spread apart much more than expected comma it means that the water is less dense. This also proves the fact that cold water is much denser than hot water. The movement of the water I also because of the convection currents and this is why boiling water also moves around. Water heats up and tends to become less dense and then again rises and cools becoming much denser again until it sinks. This process is repeated over and over and or cause since there is temperature difference in the kettle in between the upper layer and the bottom layer of the kettle. Convection or the process of convection is the only reason that this incident occurs because of the rise in heat. If an individual tries to put their hand in the pot it would be found that they are receiving the energy through different types of heat transfers like conduction and radiation however the reason why the water moves from the bottom layer to the upper layer is only because of the occurrences of the process of convection. Another example can be cited for the occurrence of convection and this can be stated by the fact in the day to day activities of humans. The occurrence of convection is also utilised in the daily usable home appliances like the microwave oven. Many microwave ovens in today's time have convection facilities within them that makes the fans inside the oven to circulate around the food. With this convection mechanism within the microwave it is easier to cook food much faster than a traditional oven. The convection facility inside microwave oven helps proper distribution of heat appropriately and evenly all around the food by helping the removal of cooler air surrounding food well it is initially placed within an oven. Thus, the cooking of food happens much more evenly and in a much lesser time using the least amount of temperature than in the traditional ovens as it has a fan with heating element all around the food that helps the air around the food circulate through the booking chamber and evenly spread heat around the food.

Out of the three types of the heat transfer, convection is the most complex since it happens due to cows involving the fluids. However, it is represented by an equation to describe the transfer of heat to the surface area when convection occurs in different type of liquids or gases.

The convection theory also can be represented by mathematical expressions through an equation.  The general equation is stated as below:

From this expression the different variables can be stated as below:

  • c is represented as the variable of interest which includes the concentration for the mass transfer and temperature for heat transfer.
  • D is the diffusion coefficient
  • V is the velocity field with quantity of gas or liquid moving it
  • R is the source of sinks of the quantity c
  • ∇ represents the gradient and ∇ ⋅ represents divergence. On the other hand ∇c represent concentration gradient.

Therefore this is the general equation for the occurrence of convection that is represented with the variables are stated as above with their proper definitions according to the scientific mathematical theories.

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