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Darwinian Ideas About Natural Selection And Public Policy Of The Late Nineteenth Century

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1. The natural selection means that plants and animal always try to evolve over time in nature as new species arise from spontaneous mutations at the point of reproduction and fight with the other plants and the animals to get food and avoid being killed and have offspring. Darwin pointed to fossil records, among other evidence, in support of his theory.

The concept of the natural selection largely effected the theories of race and racism, eugenics, the claimed national superiority of one people over another, and the immigration law.

Many sociologists and political theorists turned to social Darwinism to argue against the government programs to aid the poor, as they believed that poverty was the result of the natural inferiority, which should be bred out of the human population. An example of this concept has been given by Herbert spencer he considers a young woman from upstate new work named Margaret, whom he described as a gutter child. as the government aid had kept her alive, Margaret had, as spencer wrote, proved to be the prolific mother of two hundred descendants who were idiots imbecilic, drunkards, lunatics, paupers and prostitutes. Spencer concluded by asking, was its kindness or cruelty which, generation after generation, enabled these to multiply and become an increasing curse to the society around them.

These ideas inspired the eugenics movement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which help to improve the health and intelligence of the human race by sterilizing individuals it deemed feeble minded or otherwise unfit. Eugenic sterilization which disproportionately targeted women, minorities and immigrants, continued in the united states until the 1970’.

The pernicious belief that Darwin has imposed on the life of the Americans relationship with people of other nations. as a result of which huge number of immigrants entered in America during the time of the industrial revolution, while the Anglo Saxon Americans viewed these newcomers who differed from  earlier immigrants came to the united states during the second industrial revolution , white Anglo Saxon Americans viewed these new comers who differed from earlier immigrations in that they were likely to be catholic or Jewish rather than protestant , with disdain. Many white peoples believed that these new immigrants who were thrown exiled from the eastern and southern Europe, were racially inferior and consequently less evolved than immigrants from England, Ireland or Germany.

Similarly, social Darwinism was used as justification for American imperialism in the nations like Cuba, Puerto Ricco, and the Philippines following the Spanish American war, though many socialists argued that the American people should help the backward people to become more civilized.  The natural selection theory of Darwin hugely impacted the social science and public policy in the nineteenth century and the effect continued still the evolution of the concept of the modern biological science.

2. In the nineteenth century a number of changes occurred in the family structure of the Americans, in the first half of the century married women began to have property rights through the married women’s property act which began to be enacted in 1839. By the late nineteenth century and the on the start of the twentieth century most of the sates permitted married woman to own property sue and being sued, enter into contracts and control the disposition of the property upon the death of the women. However, the role of the women during this period was still regulated by her husband.

Another important development that was made during the late nineteenth century was the government regulation of some aspects of the childhood, such as child labor and schooling. To improve the well being of the children, reformers pressed for mandatory school attendance laws, child labor restrictions, playgrounds and widow’s pension to permit poor children ton remain with their mothers. These changes largely impacted the family structure in America and that effects the development in the socio-economic condition of the country. The government intervention in the family structure bring a positive effect in the family structure in America. The women and the child get better opportunities and that impacted in the overall growth of the country.

This democratization of the family ideals, reflected a singular society and economy, on that was driven by a reaction against depression and war and compounded by rising incomes and low prices. The economic boom that followed world war II led to significant economic growth, particularly in manufacturing and consumer goods around 13 million new homes were built in the 1950s.

Families move to the suburbs because they could afford to, and the family became a haven in a heartless world., as well as an alternative world of satisfaction and intimacy for adults and children that had experienced the ravages of wartime. In fact, this is where the concept of close-knit families as we know it originates. Domestic containment as away of life was reinforced by the youths of America who wanted to have long lasting strong relationship than their parents had.

 

3. In the nineteenth century in the absence of the television and computers theater halls were the main source of entertainment for people. Theatre halls were numerous and performance were regularly given by theatres troupes, ventriloquists, hypnotists, poets and comedians, choirs, and orchestras. circuses came to the town and set up in parks and public places.

With the evolution of the industrial revolution in the late nineteenth century new methods of amusement evolved and people used to enjoy with these methods. Bicycle was a invention in that time that become a major tool for entertainment for the common people.

Camping

The history of recreation camping often is traced back to Thomas Hiram holding, a British travelling tailor, but it was actually first popularized in the United Kingdom on the river Thames. During that time large numbers of visitors took part in the pastime, which was connected to the late Victorian craze for pleasure boating, the early camping equipment was very heavy, so it was convenient to transport it by boat or use craft that converted into tents.

Thus, boating become a major time passing entertainment for the people of the late nineteenth century. Thomas Hiram holding was responsible for popularizing a different type of camping in the late nineteenth century. He experienced the activity in the wild from his youth, when he had spent much time with his parents travelling across the American parities. Later on, he embarked on a cyclin camping tour with some of his friends across the territories of Ireland.

Baseball

Baseball become a very popular sports in America and become one of the main sources of the Americans in the nineteenth century. the local journals at that time declare baseball as the national pastime or national game =. 16 area clubs formed the sports first governing body, the national association of baseball players.

The national league after its foundation survived as the major league of baseball. several other leagues are formed but fail to sustain for long term. The baseball become so popular that many young people started to make base ball as their profession. The people of America used to enjoy watching baseball matches and that become one of the main sources of entertainment that emerged in the late nineteenth century.

Central park

Fredrick law Olmsted was an American architect who invented the concept of creating an amusement park for the Americans and with that concept he formed the central park which become one of the best amusement parks in America. The central park become one of the most beautiful places to spend leisure time and become one of the places where they used to spend their weekend and spend good time with the family.

4. Advertisement is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience to take some actions. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of the advertising also might be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.

As the economy expanded during the nineteenth century the advertising grew as well.  The French newspaper la prese was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing the paper to lower its price extends its readership and the increase profitability. Volney B Palmer introduced the roots of the modern days advertising agency in Philadelphia. Palmer bought large amount of space in various newspaper at a discounted rate then resold that space at higher rate to the advertiser. The actual ad was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise, making palmer a space broker.

The situation changed in the late nineteenth century when the advertising agency of NW Ayer &son was founded in the 1869. The company was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. They offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaign for the customers. By 1900, the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning and designing various methods of advertising. The creation of various style and design become one of the main professions. around the same time, Charles louis Havas extended the service of his news agency, Havas, to include advertisement brokerages making it the first French group to organize.

At the turn of the century, women had few career choices in the business, advertising however was on of the few industries that welcomed them. because women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in the household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women’s insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman for a soap product.

The rise of consumerism

In the next several decades saw a significant shift in consumerism. During the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century capitalist development become primarily focused on the capital goods sector and industrial infrastructure. At that time agriculture commodities essential consumer goods, and commercial activities had developed, but not to the same extent as had other sectors. members of the working classes worked long hours for low wages and little time or money was left for consumer activities.

Capital goods and infrastructure were quite durable and took a longtime to be used up. henry ford and other leaders of the industry understood that mass consumption. After observing the assembly lines in the meat packing industry, Fredrick Winslow Taylor brought his learning to other industries. The unleased incredible productivity and reduce the costs of all commodities produced in assembly lines.

While previously the norm had been the scarcity of resources, the industrial revolution created an unusual economic situation. For the first time in the history, products were available in outstanding quantities and at very low price thus they become available to virtually to everyone. For instance, henry ford believed that the workers who made his car should all be able to buy one. This became a reality with the model T car. Ford created a huge publicity machine in Detroit to ensure every news paper carried stories and ads about the new product. Fords network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in almost every city in north America. As independent dealers, the franchises grew rich and publicized not only the ford but also the concept of automobile, local motors clubs sprang up to help new drivers and to encourage explorations of the countryside.

Advertising, in its marketing of goods through various platforms and message that the viewer is in need of some product, played a major role in creating this consumerists society. Advertising changes in order to keep up with the changing consumer, it identifies the viewer’s need and association of brands and products before he or she is consciously aware. The mediums through which individuals are exposed to ads are veer changing and ever growing as marketers are always trying to get in touch with and captivate audience. For example, around the time that the automobile became prevalent in society, billboards were created, these advertisements featured short details about the brand or a catchphrase that a driver could quickly and easily spot, recognize and remember.

5. During the gilded age, many Americans began working fewer hours and had more disposable income. With newfound money and time to spend on leisure activities Americans sought new venues for entertainment

Amusement parks

Amusement parks set up outside major cities and in rural areas, emerged to meet this new economic opportunity. These parks reflected the mechanization and efficiency of the industrialization and efficiency of industrialization while serving as source of fantasy and escape from the realities of working life.  By the early 1990 hundreds of amusement parks were operating in the united states and Canada. Trolley parks, established at the end of the trolley line by enterprising steer car companies, stood outside of many cities. Parks such as Atlanta’s ponce de Leon and Idora park near Youngstown, Ohio, took passengers to traditionally popular picnic grounds, which by the late 1890’s often include rides such as the Coney islands, white city, Lina park and dreamland often were based on nationally known parks or world’s fairs. The American gilded age was, in fact, the golden age of amusement parks that reigned until the 1920s.

6. From the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, the united states experienced enormous industrial economic social and cultural change. A continuous wave of European immigration and the rising potential for the international trade brought increasing growth and prosperity to America, through artistic expression American realism attempted to portray the cultural exuberance of the figurative American landscape and the life of the ordinary Americans at home. Artists allowed the emotional tenor, textures and the and sounds of the city to influence the style and composition of their creative products

The ashcans school

The ashcan school was a group of New York city artists who sought to capture the feel of the turn of the century New York city through realistic portraits of everyday life. The artists not only the depicted the rich and promising fifth avenue socialites, but also the culturally textured lives of the lower classes. At least one critic of the term didn’t like the ashcans school’s choice or subject, which included alleys, tenements, slum dwellers and taverns frequented by the working class.

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