NATO or North Atlantic Treaty Organization can be defined as an inter governmental military alliance between twenty one countries of North America and Europe. This particular organization is responsible for implementing the North Atlantic Treaty, which was being signed on 4th April 1949. North Atlantic Treaty Organization constitutes a system of collective defence, whereas the independent member state agreed to the mutual defence after having response to any attack by the external parties. The head quarters of North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium. However, the head quarters of Allied Command Operations is located near Mons, Belgium. Since its initiation, the admission of the new member state have incremented the respective alliance from the initial twelve countries to twenty nine.
The most recent member state that was being added to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was Montenegro on 5th June 2017. This particular organization is currently recognizing Georgia, Bosnia, North Macedonia and Herzegovina as well as Ukraine as the most aspiring members. The additional twenty one countries eventually participate in the program of peace of North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Partnership with fifteen other countries included in the institutionalized dialogue program. A combined military spending of each and every member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization constitutes more than seventy percent of the global total. This each and every member has committed to reach to the maintenance of define spending of minimum of two percent of gross domestic product by the year of 2024.
On 4th March 1947, the Treaty of Dunkirk was being signed by France as well as the United Kingdom as the Mutual Assistance or a Treaty of Alliance during the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union within the after math of the World War 2. During the year of 1948, this particular alliance was expanded for inclusion of Benelux countries within the form of the Western Union and is also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization or BTO. This BTO was established by the Treaty of Brussels. A new military alliance included North America and resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4th April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union and the United States, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Italy, Portugal and Canada. This specific Treaty was largely dormant until the Korean War started the establishment of North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO to deploy it. This was implemented by the help of an integrated military structure. It even involved the distinctive formation of SHAPE or Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in the year of 1951 that adopted the military planning and structure of the Western Union.
In the year of 1952, the designation of Secretary General in NATO was being established as the chief civilian of the company. The major NATO maritime exercises and accession of Greece and Turkey was also been noted in this particular year. West Germany was given the permission to rearm military since they joined North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the year of 1955. It was one of the most significant factor for the creation of the Soviet dominated Warsaw Pact that delineated the two opposing sides of the cold war. There were distinctive doubts over the strength of the relation within the United States and the European states being flowed and along with the doubts over the credibility of the defence of NATO against the prospective Soviet invasion. The military structure of NATO was being withdrawn by France in the year of 1966 and finally Spain joined the alliance in 1982.
The sudden collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 eventually removed the main adversary of NATO before causing a strategic re evaluation of the purpose, nature, task or focus of NATO over the continent of Europe. The respective shift initiated with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe within the Soviet Union and NATO that mandated relevant military reductions across the entire continent, which even continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union during December of 1991. The European countries accounted for more than thirty four percentage of the military spending of NATO. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany during the year of 1989, this particular organization of North Atlantic Treaty Organization have conducted its very first military convention in Bosnia from the year of 1992 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in the year of 1999 during the break-up of Yugoslavia. The Russian intervention in Crimea during the year of 2014 eventually led to the stronger condemnation by nations of North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well as creation of a new spear head force of 5000 troops at the bases in Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
The leaders of the member states in North Atlantic Treaty Organization majorly committed for the first time for spending the equivalent for minimum of two percent of their gross domestic products on defence by the year of 2024 that had previously been only an informal guideline. NATO did not conduct any military operation during the cold war and following the end of this cold war, the first operations of Anchor Guard was being prompted by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Airborne early warning air craft were being sent for providing major coverage of the South Eastern Turkey and later a quicker reaction force was being deployed to the area. The Bosnian war was started in the year of 1992 and as a result of the break up of Yugoslavia. This type of deteriorating situation eventually led to the United Nations Security Council Resolution 816 on 9th October in the year of 1992 by ordering a no fly zone over the central Bosnia as well as Herzegovina. NATO enforced with operation Deny Flight in the year of 1993 and operation Sharp Guard in the year of 1996 by shooting down four Bosnian Serb air craft after violating the no fly zone during 1994.
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