In any atom of an element the number of electrons are equal to its atomic number or the number of its protons. When that atom becomes an ion then the number of electrons in that ion is either increased making it a positive ion (cat-ion) or a negative ion (anion). The electrons are assigned to an ion or an atom by certain rules which are known as rules of electron configuration. When the energy of an electron is increased then the electron goes to high-energy state making it closer or over the nearest valence band. When the energy of the electron is released then the electron drops in energy level. Hence, electrons with high energy is placed in the outer orbits and the electrons with low energy are placed in inner orbits. In simplest way the electrons are arranged in some specific cells around the nucleus of an atom. The electrons those are closest to the nucleus have the least energy and the electrons those are away from nucleus have the highest energy. Electron shell of an atom can accommodate a total of 2n2 number of electrons, where n is the orbit or shell number. For an example fluorine has the atomic number of 9 and has 2 electrons in the first energy level and rest 7 electrons are in the second energy level. In more detailed structure there are 4 different subshells in each shell. The subshells in a shell are s, p, d and f. the energy sequence of electrons in subshells in ascending order is s>p>d>f. In each cell the subshell s is at lower energy than p. The diagram of an orbit is used for determination of an atom’s electron configuration. There exists specific guidelines for determination of atom’s configuration. Now, for determination of electrons configuration in an atom there are specific guidelines. An electron will always be forward to the orbit having the least energy. Only one electron pair by an orbit. Electrons will be as much separated as possible inside a cell. The nucleus is at the centre of an atom that contains protons and the electrons. The electrons have the same charge and same mass but in different distance from the nucleus due its energy level. The electrons are attracted by the electromagnetic force from the nucleus and the force is maximum for the electrons which are in the closest orbit from nucleus. The excited atoms can go back to lower-level orbits by releasing energy in the surroundings. The electrons can release the energy by releasing light in form of photons. The light is emitted at a particular frequency or colour depending on the excitation level of electron. The energy units of the separation between the electrons are known as quantization of energy as there are only specific quantities of energy that can be possessed by an electron. This quantization energy is same as the energy which is released by an electron at the time of dropping from a higher to lower level. The electrons are represented as circling the nucleus in rings, however, in reality the electrons move through very complicated paths. The paths are atomic orbitals or known as subshells. Different subshells s, p, d and f have different shapes. In the first energy level only two electrons can be accommodated and thus one subshell s is present there. In the second energy level total 8 electrons can be accommodated and thus contains 1 s subshell and 3 p subshells. The third shell has 1 s subshell, three p subshells and five d subshells. Similarly in higher orbits there are d and f subshells that can hold 10 electrons and 18 electrons respectively.
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