As per the Article I and Section 1, the granting of all the legislations are performed with the help of the United States Constitution. However, there are several powers that are adhered to the United States Congress about the creation of bills that constitutes the involvement of a Senate as well as a House of Representative. According to the legislative powers that are provided to the House of the Representatives and the Senate also have been included in the advising situations as well. As per the regulations, the Senate would have the power of advising and provide their consent in the matters that are associated with the treaties that are negotiated with the foreign countries and at the same time they are also provided with another power where they have the proper implementation of their powers over the providing of the nominations of the federal offices and even the non-elected federal offices that have been amended by the President of the United States. The congress happens to have the powers for the amendment of a Constitution as well and even has the power to declare any war. In addition to that, the Congress are also allowed with the power to approve or to reject the matters of the expenditures by the federal government and the maintenance of the operating budget. There is another included clause in the Necessary and Proper Commerce Clauses of Section 8 in the constitution where it has been clearly specified that the Congress has the right to exercise their power but it only enumerated not explicitly anywhere else but the Constitution. Therefore, under the different clauses shared in the Constitution about the powers implied to the Congress, it can be clearly stated that the property or the powers that are to be implied for the necessary execution of the foregoing powers and all the other powers are to be vested by only the Constitution and the Government of the United States, including any of the department and officer included in the power for the people who are considered to be in the constitution.
The powers that are vested on the Congress and that are allowed or granted by the constitute makes the Congress take decisions about considering about thousands of the bills every session. However, even after the huge number of considerations of the bills, only a few numbers of the considered bills have the ability of being at the top for the final consideration to be done by the president for having a veto or an approval. At the same time, the bills also have the probability of going all the way through various committees and subcommittees to enter the White House. Within this phase, there have been numerous amounts of debates and amendments going on for the acceptance of the bill amongst both the chambers of the Congress as well. There can be huge numbers of compromises and debates before the laws can be made by the United States Congress that happens to make the legislations and the laws for influencing the daily live of the people living in the United States. The process of the legislation also informs the input of the hearings for conducting the investigations where the overseeing of the executive branch is included and also has the ability to serve as the voice of the people in the United States and also the Federal Government. It has been previously stated that the Congress includes the input of the Senate and a member of the House of the Representative. However, there are distinct differences prevailing between the Congress and the Senate. The primary important difference that can be stated to differentiate between the Congress and the Senate is that the Congress helps in the determination of the legislative arms of the Government and serves the job of making laws. The Congress is normally made out of the duties of making the laws, representing the people, helping out the constituents, performing the oversights and educating the people who fall under the constitution. On the other hand, the Senate has the ability of generating the law and also helps in determining the advice board for any law that needs to be made.
The power adhered to the Congress for turning a bill into the law is also associated to the approval that the United States Government would provide to the bills presented to the top order. The following are the ways by which the bills produced by the United States Congress can be clearly passed on as the new law:
Step 1 – The Introductory Phase: It is only applicable to the single member of the Congress, that can either be a House of Representative or a Senate, that has the ability of introducing a specific bill that the Congress needs to consider. At this phase, the single member that would most probably be presenting this bill to the Parliament for the Constitution to consider would be represented by the term “Sponsor”. If there are members in the parliament who are in support of the bill or the preparation for the work behind the presentation of the bill can be considered as the ‘co-sponsors’ of the bill. If the bills are extremely important, then there is a probability that there would be a number of co-sponsors for the bill. There mostly are four basic types of the legislations, that are mostly termed by the names ‘measures’ or ‘bills’. The legislations include Bills, Joint Resolutions, Simple Resolutions and Concurrent Resolutions. There might be the bills or the resolutions that might be introduced in the presentation of the bill and then it can be printed upon the Congressional Record as per the Government Printing Office.
Step 2 – The Consideration by the Committee: The rules and regulations specify that the bills and the regulations might be usually referred to the House or the Senate committees considering one or more than one member.
Step 3 – Action of the Committee: It is the next step where the bill is considered by the committee in details as per the plead for the bill as presented. This can also be presented as per the following example. It might occur that the Federal Budget may consider the potential impact of a bill as per the House Ways and Means Committee and Senate Appropriations Committee.
Only when the entire committee would approve of the bill, the bill might be considered for the legislative processes. Committees might even be rejecting the bills by refusing to act on them. There is also a term for the bills that might be not approved by the committee or refused to get the committee action. These bills are referred to as the bills that have ‘died in the committee’.
Step 4 – Review of the Subcommittee: This is the way by which the committee further sends a few bills to the subcommittee so that they can be placed for either the public hearings or even for the further studies. These are then referred to as the testimonials where all the members might be present for the hearing. There might be many groups of people that might be included in the representation of the hearing ceremony, that would include the experts from the industry, the government officials, the public or any person who can have the interest in the bill and at the same time might be able to have the ability of providing testimonials either in person or in writing. The Federal Register is where the official publication of the notice for these hearings are presented with all the detailed instructions for the presentation of the testimonials.
Step 5 – Mark up: The subcommittee may even recommend to bring back a bill for the approval of the entire committee. There might be an instance where the subcommittee may even vote for the non-submission of a bill that may cause the bill to die right at that point of time.
Step 6 – Reporting a Bill: If a bill has been passed all the stages where the deliberation or the recommendation of the bill, then the bill, which has passed through all the stages of the report might be referred to as “ordered reported”.
Step 7 – Publication of Committee Report: After the reporting of a bill, then the report would also have the report over the purpose of the bill, the impact that it might have on the existing laws, the considerations of the budget or any kind of the levy of taxes would be implied on the presentation of the bill.
Step 8 – Floor Action: The Speaker of the House and House Majority Leader decides on the debate over the reported bill to consider which of these bills would be discussed over at what time.
Step 9 – Debating over the bill: There would be a debate about the consideration of the bill with proper consideration and argumentative mode about the bill.
Step 10 – Voting: Once debate has ended and any amendments to the bill have been approved, the full membership will vote for or against the bill. Methods of voting allow for a voice vote or a roll-call vote.
Step 11 – Final Action of Enrolment: If it occurs that the President is opposed to the bill, he can vote against it or "veto" it. If he takes no action on the bill for ten days after Congress has deferred the second session, the bill automatically dies. This incident is considered as "pocket veto."
Step 12 – Overriding the Veto: Under Article I, Section 7 of the U.S. Constitution, overriding a presidential veto requires both the House and Senate to approve the override measure by two-thirds, a supermajority vote of the members present.
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