For a long time it was thought that this painting represented the martyrdom of the apostle Bartholomew; an event that Ribera had painted several times. Only in the had been in 1953 was established that the subject is Philip the Apostle by the art historian Delphine Fitz Derby. Following the resurrection of Jesus, Philip was and his sister Marianne together with Bartholomew preached in Greece, Phrygia, and Syria. He was martyred in Hierapolis when he was crucified.
Ribera captures the moment when the preparations for the crucifixion are still in progress. He does so from a low perspective, giving the main characters monumentality and showing a large part of blue sky. Two executioners try to raise the apostle, while a third supports one of his legs. Bright sunlight illuminates his face that shows pain and resignation. The contrast of light en shadow enhances the dramatic effect.
On the right there is a group of curious onlookers who appear to comment on the event. On the left, on the other hand, the people who appear are oblivious to what happens; there is a woman holding a little child in her arms and looking toward the viewer, putting a tender and delicate counterpoint to the cruelty that dominates the rest of the scene. Some critics have wanted to see an allegory of Charity in this figure.
Judging by the treatment of colour, the touches of brush and the splendid naked, this is a mature work by Ribera. It is less caravagesque than his previous works, showing the influence of Guido Guido Reni and Domenichino. Hence history says that saint phlips had been commissioned by the duke the medina de lass Torres as a gift to the king phlips 4 of Spain who had also been known as Philip the apostle was his patron saint. Thus for a long time the painting was a big collection part. However the same had escaped the fire which had broken out in the exhibition ceremony. Thus the same picture had been subsequently installed in the buen ratero palace and the royal palace of Madrid.
There are a lot of facts about the Philip the aposte which had been mentioned in the bible. One of the most important thing to know about Philip was there had been as follows-
The interesting thing about Philip, one of Jesus’ 12 disciples, is that he was personally reached by Jesus himself. While Philip brought Nathanael to Jesus, and Andrew brought Peter to Jesus, no one brought Philip to Jesus. Instead, Jesus came right to him. John’s Gospel tells us, “The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him. Normally God reaches people through people, but this was an exception to the rule.
2. Philip quickly reached out to Nathanael with the good news of Jesus.
We don’t know a lot about Philip. The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke give us no details about him. All the vignettes of Philip appear in the Gospel of John. But from that Gospel, we discover that he was a completely different kind of person than Peter, Andrew, James, or John. He is often paired with Nathanael (also known as Bartholomew), whom he brought to Jesus.
“Philip found Nathanael and said to him, ‘We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.
3. Philip was practical.
It also would appear from John’s account of the Feeding of the Five Thousand that Philip may have been in charge of the supplies and food, the road manager of sorts. He was the kind of guy who was practical, always thinking about the bottom line.
And on this occasion, Jesus, trying to stretch Philip’s faith, posed a question to him as the crowd gathered: “Where shall we buy bread that these may eat? Philip responded, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may have a little”
Philip didn’t do so well on that test. He wasn’t the first to have the most faith, but he was a follower of Jesus who was used by God.
There are two different people have been considered in this case. One is Philip the apostle and the other one is Philips the evangelist. Firstly Philips the apostle had been one of the 12 people who had been chosen by Jesus and trained him for almost three and a half years to make him ready to preach the gospel and to be a unique witness. The other phlips was a very disciplined person good reputation, full of holy spirit and wisdom and was chosen by the God himself for daily distribution of food to the people. However there are some difference between Philip the apostle and Philip thee evangelist. These are-
Philip the apostle:
He had been handpicked by the God himself along with 12 more apostles who were unique by their name and the book of revelation. It had been revealed that those 12 apostles had put their names over some memorable foundation in the walls of Jerusalem for eternity. On the contrary Philip the apostle had been approached by john apostle to introduce to Jesus that he was close to him. Philip had been present in the Jesus room and had also preached the gospel in Phrygia before he was martyred. Hence phlips the apostle had been known for his kind acts towards human.
Philip the evangelist:
Philip the evangelist is first seen in the period of time when the Christian community was growing after the day of Pentecost, in which he was described by Luke the writer of the book of Acts to be a disciple among the seven who were full of good reputation, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, who was chosen by the people of God and appointed by the twelve apostles over the business of daily distribution of food to all people After the appointment of Philip by the apostles, he acted as one of the first seven deacons of the Jerusalem Church. When persecution arose against the Jerusalem Church, all the disciples were scattered everywhere around Jerusalem during which Philip was said to have went to Samaria and preached Christ to them with signs and miracles. Hence Philip the apostle and Philip the evangelist were not same.
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. In the martyrdom narrative of the remembering community, this refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of an actor by an alleged oppressor. Accordingly, the status of the 'martyr' can be considered a posthumous title as a reward for those who are considered worthy of the concept of martyrdom by the living, regardless of any attempts by the deceased to control how they will be remembered in advance. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause.
Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Similarly, martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples. Originally it means that the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible. The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g. Josephus) and from the New Testament that witnesses often died for their testimonies.
During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, and on account of this witness, endures suffering or death. The term, in this later sense, entered the English language as a loanword. The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called martyrdom.
The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion. The early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr.
The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms.
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