IR 717 International Conflict Analysis Take Home Exam Due Date: 31 May @ 23:59. Length: Two 1,000 word responses Weight: 30% This take home exam involves two 1,000 word essays from a list of 10 questions (5 will be drawn from the first six weeks of the unit and 5 questions from the second six weeks). The due date of the exam is Friday 31 May. As this is a take home exam – exam scripts will not be returned. Instructions: Students must answer two questions: one question from part A and one question from part B. Exam Questions Part A 1) The Seville Statement on Violence (UNESCO 1986) put forward five postulates: -that we have not “inherited a tendency to make war from our animal ancestors”. -that “war or any other violent behaviour is not genetically programmed into our human nature”. -that it is “incorrect to say that in the course of human evolution there has been a selection for aggressive behaviour more than for other kinds of behaviour”. -that it is “incorrect to say that humans have a ‘violent brain’ ”. -that war is not “caused by ‘instinct’ or any single motivation”. Do you agree with the statement? Your answers must provide a series of arguments that justify your view. 2) Why does the theory of structural violence emphasise the importance of structures in conflict analysis? Is this importance justified? 3) What are the differences between Frustration-Aggression theories and Resource Mobilization theories of conflict? Which one offers a more convincing account for understanding international conflict? 4) “...the primary question becomes how to measure the effect of conflict on society rather than simply how to reduce its impact”. Do you agree with this statement and why? 5) Choose a case-study of international conflict and analyse it by applying one of the theories of conflict we discussed in this unit. What are the conclusions you draw? What are the limitations of your “reading” of the case-study? Part B 1) Analyse the basic features of peace-keeping operations during the Cold War. Why such operations were unable to maintain international peace and security in the post-1990 era? 2) When mediators should mediate? Analyse the conditions and the strategies for a potentially successful mediation process. What are your conclusions? 3) Discuss the following quote: “Since conflict resolution by outside bodies and individuals has so far proved ineffective [in the chaotic conditions of contemporary ethnic conflict – particularly, but not exclusively, in Somalia, Eastern Europe and the former USSR], it is essential to consider the peacemaking potential within the conflicting communities themselves”. (Curle, 1994: 96) 4) To what degree is reconciliation important for building long-term peace? Has justice any role to play in reconciliation practices? 5) What is the role of gender in conflict resolution theory and practice? How important this contribution is? Guidelines The exam is two short essays where the focus should be on developing an argument and using your own words. Reference when you use other people's words - but avoid long quotes. Ensure the introduction clearly sets out your argument/position in respect to the question. It is OK to write on a topic similar to your essay topic. In relation to the first point, referencing is not required unless for direct quotes. If you choose to use references any system of referencing is fine (Harvard is probably the easiest) and references and the bibliography do not count towards the word count. It is OK to have one bibliography for both essays. Ensure your essay does not contain plagiarised material. Put all direct quotes in quotation marks and use page numbers wherever possible. Do not cite lecture notes or other people’s posts from our Cloud forums. Do not cite generic online encyclopaedias such as Wikipedia, etc. Essays can be a maximum of 10% over/under the word length. Submit your essay on time! Late penalties apply. Please read the marking criteria before planning your essay. Marking Criteria What the Assessor will be looking for when marking this assignment: 1) Comprehension of Unit Material: ensure that your use of facts is accurate and relevant concepts and theories are examined. Ensure you demonstrate an understanding of the relevant core readings of the unit as a whole. 2) Critical analysis: Your answers must sustain a coherent argument that is supported by giving evidence and reasons. This will require demonstrating careful analysis of other people’s arguments and being critical of the evidence at hand (this may require questioning the assumptions of the material you have read). 3) Relevance to the question: Ensure that the concepts and examples you use, and your argument as a whole, are focused on the question that you are addressing and the argument you are making. 4) Research: ensure that you use a sufficient amount of research. You should not be overly dependent on web sources – you should ensure that the number of web sources does not exceed your journal articles and books. 5) Clear structure: it should possess an introduction that sets out how you are going to answer the question, an essay body that considers evidence and research and then links these to your point of view, and a conclusion that reinforces your position in relation to the question.