Critical thinking is a mental process which helps in analyzing and evaluating different information. Reasoning is the capacity of an individual for rational thought process and for thinking logically. The word critical implies to the effort of an individual to identify the information and clearly understand and evaluate in order to judge it clearly. Once a strong foundation and healthy concept about self is established, it is very essential to think critically and to find a strong reason for the same. The thought process of every individual should not be reactive, biased, prejudices and uninformed. In failure to this, will create a undisciplined and a haphazard thought process. For assessing any situation of the life, and to understand and evaluate the consequences , taking a careful step and framing the course of action is very essential for every individual. This can be achieved by an organized process of thinking, integrating the gathered information and distinguish between the facts and the opinion in order to understand the potential outcome. Instead of emotionally reacting to any problem, strategies can be implemented which can help individual in:
This enhances the life quality of every individual as it is directly proportional to the quality of thinking of an individual. Critical thinking, is self-monitored, self-disciplined and helps in reasonably solving any kind of problem. It in turn promotes positive attitude, open mindedness and enhances perceptive of every individual.
Critical thinking examines an individual’s beliefs and beliefs of the others. The information gathers should support the beliefs. On the other hand, good reasoning avoids any kind of logical fallacies and depends only on the factual information. Critical thinking requires a substantial time investment of an individual. Thus, it is essential to judge which of the beliefs of the individual or others really needs efforts to analyze and evaluate critically. The beliefs that are considered to be unworthy of the critical thinking is treated just as an opinion and not considered seriously. In such cases, an individual should critically think in order to change the opinion and in turn the decision when an individual encounters very strong evidence. The rest of the opinions who do not offer any good evidence are simply treated as an opinion. Thus, critical thinking is a much broader concept than critical thinking. On the contrary, reasoning is an all –encompassing term in logic that helps in capturing the activities of the sub-categories that will help in drawing a conclusion. Critical thinking requires reasoning and other skills in order to deal with the real world whereas reasoning is applied in more generally. Reasoning helps in deriving conclusions through various assumptions whereas critical thinking is used to validate the assumptions.
The five critical thinking skills are:
Logical thinking is the method, where an individual uses consistent reasoning in order to draw a conclusion. Situations and circumstances that require logical thinking requires a structure, facts that provide related information and chains of reasoning. The basis of all logical thinking is sequential thought process. This process includes important facts, ideas and conclusions that will in turn help in arranging the information gathered in a chain-like progression. There are two types of logical reasoning- induction and abduction.
Deductive reasoning: it determines whether the truth in the conclusion part can be determined which is entirely based on the truth of the premises. For example: When it rains, everything outside gets wet. The trees outside gets wet when it rains. Mathematical and philosophical logic are related to this type of reasoning.
Inductive reasoning: This type of reasoning supports the determination rule. It hypothesizes a rule after numerous examples are taken to be a conclusion that follows from a pre-condition in terms of such a rule. For example: The trees outside got wet a numerous times in the rain. Thus, whenever it rains, the trees become wet. These deductions are persuasive but not deductive in nature. Science is related to this kind of reasoning.
Abductive reasoning: A cogent set of pre-conditions are selected in this type of reasoning. If a true conclusion is given, it tries to find some possible premise so that it is true, it might or might not support the conclusion. For example: when it rains, the trees become wet. Now the trees are wet, which implies, it has rained. This type of reasoning helps to establish a hypothesis which can be checked through additional information or reasoning. Detectives, scientists and diagnosticians use this kind of reasoning for their work.
Logical thinking and reasoning can be easily developed by physical exercise, reading and practicing reasoning in order to enhance the reasoning skills.
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