The concept of Columbian Exchange is obscure which has been developed by obscure historians. The transmission of animals, diseases and non-native plants from Europe to the Americas and vice versa is known as the Columbian Exchange. This has been the most significant event in the history of world ecology, culture and agriculture. Thus, began the line of communication between the two hemispheres. It also relates to the colonization in Europe and trade after the voyage of Christopher Columbus. Invasive species including communicable diseases were the by products of the Columbian Exchange.
The voyage to America by Christopher Columbus in the year 1493 marked the beginning of a new era in the colonial areas of Europe. This term was introduced in the year 1792 by Alfred W. Crosby. The contact between the hemispheres of Europe, Africa and Asia eliminated a wide range of new crops and livestock which in turn had resulted in the increased population in all these areas. Explorers had returned to the European countries with potatoes, maize and tomatoes which has increased and developed the colonies of Europe. Europeans on the contrary have introduced manioc and peanuts to the various places of Asia and West Africa. Christopher Columbus on his second voyage brought chickens, pigs and cows to the Caribbean island.
The Columbian Exchange has impacted the cultural and social outlook of both the sides of Atlantic. The effect of Columbian Exchange was huge. It impacted the evolution of the warfare, agricultural production, mortality rate and education sector on both the Native Americans and the Europeans. This resulted in the exchange of goods that had influenced the culture of both the nations. The Irish people became dependent on the potatoes, the Italian food like Pizza were introduced due to the Columbian Exchange. Foods that had never been seen before by people became the staple of their everyday diets as new growing regions opened up for crops. The Columbian Exchange had enabled the globalization and cultural diffusion, which has influenced the future of both the nations. The first import of Europe, the horses had transformed the lives of the Native Americans tribes which has allowed them to shift to a nomadic lifestyle depending on hunting bison on horseback. Before the Columbian Exchange, there were no oranges in Florida, no paprika in Hungary, no pineapples in Hawaii, no cattle in Texas, no chilli peppers in Thailand Although it had positive affects, it had negative affects too. Diseases were carried by the clothes, blankets and people which have resulted in affecting the population on both the sides. This Era of Colonization was continued by the Portuguese and the Spanish leading to the subjugation of the Native Americans. Commoditisation, has affected the production in the New World. Tobacco was not known to the Europeans before 1492, and initially had a negative stigma. The Spanish explorers considered the use of tobacco by the native people to be a proof of their savagery. However, later the colonist European started smoking tobacco on a regular basis and thus, they brought it across the Atlantis. Europeans attributed the medicinal properties to tobacco saying that tobacco could cure skin eruptions and headaches. Soon after this, tobacco became a global commodity. Native people, also introduced chocolates to the Europeans that is made from the cacao seed s and utilized by the Aztec in Mesoamerica as currency. The crossing of the Atlantic of these plants shows the ways in which discovery of the New World has changed the behaviours and habits of the Old Europe.
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