An equator is defined as an imaginary line drawn around and middle of the Earth. An equator is a halfway running between North and South Poles and divides the Earth into two hemispheres namely the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The Earth is the widest at its Equator. The distance of the Earth at its Equator measures to up to 40,075 kilometers that is about 24.901 miles. The diameter of the Earth also measures the largest at its Equator creating a phenomenon called the Equatorial bulge. The diameter of the Earth at its Equator is nearly about 12,756 kilometers which is about 7,926 miles whereas at the poles, the diameter of the Earth is about 12,714 kilometers which is about 7,900 miles. It is estimated that the Equatorial Bulge of the Earth is about 43 kilometers which is about 27 miles. The term Equatorial bulge means that the individuals who are standing at the sea level near to the poles are closer to te center of the Earth than those standing near the sea level which is near the Equator. The Equatorial Bulge has direct effect on the ocean to the sea level which is slightly higher in the equatorial regions that are near to the poles.
The Tropic of Cancer is also referred to as the northern Tropic. It is the most northerly circle at its latitude position on the Earth where the Sun can be directly over headed. The latitude of Tropic of Cancer is approximately 23°27′ N of the terrestrial Equator. The latitude of the Tropic of Cancer corresponds to the north most declination of the Sun’s Ecliptic up to the celestial equator. At the time of summer solstice, the Sun attains its declination at its highest level directly over the Tropic of Cancer. During this time, the Sun appears in the Constellation Gemini in the Constellation Cancer resulting in the designation of the Tropic of Cancer. For this reason of the gradual change in the direction of the rotation of the axis of the Earth, the Sun reappears in the constellation of Caner at an approximate time period of 24,000 years.
The Tropic of Capricorn is defined as the circle of latitude containing the sub solar point on the southern solstice. It is the southernmost latitude where the Sun directly overheads. The northern equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the major circles of latitude. The latitude of Tropic of Capricorn extends to about 23°26′12.3″ in the south while gradually moving towards northward.
When the lines of Tropic of Capricorn were named in the year 2000, the Sun was at its constellation of Capricorn during the winter solstice. Hence it was named as Tropic of Capricorn. At present due to the possession of the equinoxes the Sun does not remain at its constellation but the name still exists.
The Tropic of Cancer is significant as it makes the circle at the latitude of 23.5 degree at its north where the Sun directly overheads to the northern hemisphere. At the beginning of the Winter solstice, in the northern hemisphere the Sun’s rays only hits to the Earth’s surface at a right angle at the Tropic of Capricorn. During the northern hemisphere, that is during the summer solstice the sun directly overheads towards the Tropic of Cancer. The Earth actually moves around the Sun with its axis line through the north and south pole which is slightly tilted. The Sun then overheads at noon at the Tropic of Cancer at the Northern Summer Solstice and overheads at noon at the Tropic of Capricorn at the Northern Winter Solstice. As a result of thus tiling of the Earth, giving us in the Northern Hemisphere through respective isolation in winter and summer. Both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn encompasses the tropical area of tre Earth that means at least at one day of the year the Sun directly overheads at an angle of 90 degree. However between these two lines the length of day does not vary across the year as there is no real seasonality to weather and to the length of day. As a result of this we experience dry seasons and wet seasons at many locales that are not too high up in the mountains.
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