1.Classful addressing bifurcates the IP address into host ID and network ID. Classful addressing limits the count of network which can be providing to the network. In classful addressing subset mask is used. Classless addressing allows the usage of subnet mask which is of varying length called VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask). The subnet mask used is different in the same network. Network ID and host ID is not bounded in classless addressing. In classless addressing has no subnet mask.
2.Class A is large as it has 24 bits of addressing that is enough for a large number of individual devices. This is the reason as why Class A address is wasted. The class A subnet is large for almost all organization and most establishment have small scale amount of devices. Hence a big chunk of Class A addressing is not used as is wasted.
The reason for most organization not wanting a clock of Class C is because Class C is way too small scale for organizations.
3.Mask in IPv4 is used to recognize the network addresses of the IP address by bitwise AND operation on netmask. The subnet mask masks the IP address and further bifurcates the address into host address and network address.
4. In one block of address, network address is the very first address. Given that if one of the addresses in the block is known, we can find the network address by ANDing the mask with the known address in the block.
5.Subnetting is the method to partition one single network into smaller logical networks or subnets. Partition is done to generate more than one sub networks. Subnets are highly enhances security and efficiency of network and reduces broadcast domain size. Subnets accepts the bits from host segment of the IP address, uses the bits to allocate sub networks within the initial network.
Default subnet mask in IP addresses for Class A, B and C are:
Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0
Subnetting gives allowance to create multiple networks with the existing network. In a classful addressing the number of consecutive one’s in subnet mask is more than default mask.
6.NAT or Network Address Translation is so designed to conserve IP address. The IP networks which are private and uses unregistered addresses, NAT enables them to link to the Internet. NAT connects two distinct network together and a router is needed to operate NAT. NAT translates private addresses into the legal address inside the network before any data packets are send into another network. NAT is configured to proclaim 1 address for whole network. This enhances security level as the internal network is hidden behind the address.
NAT improves the security of the network and reduces the count of the IP addresses the organization needs. The user can have internally a large set of address or a small set externally. NAT helps in address depletion by regulating the traffic on the larger set and the traffic outside to the smaller set.
7.Connection Oriented Services creates virtual connection before the packets are sent on the internet. There is a need to authenticate the data destination before data is transferred. The connection is way reliable and handshaking is applied to ensure agreement between the sender and the receiver. Connectionless services send packets without the creating of virtual connection. The data packets are send to the unauthenticated destination. There is no reliability on the transmission of the data packets. Lastly, handshaking is not performed when the packets are send on the network.
8.Fragmentation is the process of breaking the data packets into small packet size, maximum number of PDU (Packet Data Unit) which are supported by underlying networks.
Fragmentation is needed as MTU or Maximum Transmission Unit varies from one router to the other.
9. The strategies required to move from IPv4 to IPv6 are: Data Stack Routers, Tunneling and NAT Protocol Translation.
Tunneling provides solution to pass the data in the scenario where there is dissimilar version of IP existing on the transit networks
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