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What Is A Dipole Moment? Explain The Procedure To Predict

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 1

In the field of physics, when polarity of some quantity is involved that is called a dipole. In physics, the dipole has the use as electric dipole, magnetic dipole and the dipole moment. The field of meteorology also has the use of diploes as anomaly in arctic dipole, dipole in Indian Ocean and dipole in subtropical Indian Ocean. The other than the fields mentioned above there are also other uses of the dipole in field of antenna, magnet, speaker, graph, anisotropy.

Mathematical multiplication of charge magnitudes and separated dipole ends is the dipole moment. There are many types of dipole moments such as dipole moment of electric, transition, molecular, bond, electron, magnetic, electron, nuclear, topological.

Dipole moment of electric: The dipole moment of electric is the measurement of the separation between the negative and the positive charges of electricity within a particular system. The primary goal of this procedure is to measure the total polarity of the selected system. Coulomb-meter is used as the SI units for the dipole moment of the electric. In case of electricity, there are two types of charges that are separated with a distance d and the charges are ‘+q’ and ‘-q’ for positive and negative respectively. The dipole moment of the electric consists of a magnitude and that is p = qd.

Dipole moment of molecules: Many molecules are consists of negative and positive charges that are distributed non-uniformly in the atoms. This creates the dipole moment in the molecules. Molecules like hydrogen fluoride has such polar compounds that the density of the electron is shared unequally among the atoms. Hence, electric dipole can also be referred to as the molecules dipole with the addition of the field of inherent electric. However, this is different from the magnetic dipole, as molecular dipole moment does not have the magnetic field. In the domain of molecular dipole moment, there are three fields present and they are – Permanent dipoles (The occurrence of this happens when there are difference between the electronegativity between the two atoms of a molecule), Instantaneous dipoles (This happens when the concentration of an electron is at only one place rather than other places in the molecule thus, creates the temporary dipole. The magnitude of these dipoles is lesser than the permanent dipoles.), Induced dipoles (When a molecule’s electron are repelled by the permanent dipole of another molecule, the first molecule is induced.). After the dielectric constant is measured, the values of the dipole moments can be acquired. In the form of Debye units, some of the phase values of typical gases are carbon dioxide = 0, ozone = 0.53 D, carbon monoxide = 0.112 D, phosgene = 1.17 D. The vector sum of the dipole moments of bonds can give the approximate value of total molecular dipole moment.

Dipole moment of transition: The transition dipole moment is the transition that is present in the middle of an initial state, m, and the final state, n. The transition dipole moment is often denoted by dnm. The phase factors that are associated with two states are included with the vector quantity, which is very complex. Coulomb-meter is the SI unit that is used in transition dipole moment. There is also another sized unit, which is more convenient called Debye (D). This unit is in the CGS form.

Dipole moment of bond: This dipole moment uses the same idea as the dipole moment of the electric. Polarity of chemical bonds that are present inside the molecule is usually measured with the help of this dipole moment. Whenever there is any separation between the charges of negative and positive is detected, this dipole moment occurs. The bond is called as μ and it is denoted by: μ = ẟd. The bond in the bond dipole moment is represented as +δ — δ- along with a distance d that is present between the charges.

Dipole moment of electron: Electron has an intrinsic property like potential energy and the electron dipole moment is the same. Electric fields relates to the strength linearly. Magnetic moment of an electron has the direction that is collinear with the electron’s electric dipole moment. Elementary physics of particle has standard model, within which the dipole is non-zero but that very small and close to zero.

Dipole moment of magnet: The measurement of the magnetic polarity of charges of a particular system is the dipole moment of magnet. Magnetic field is produced by the strength of the magnet or other objects along with the orientation. There are lot of examples of objects that have the magnetic moments such as electric current loops, elementary particles, permanent magnets and astronomical objects. The basic components are the two poles including south and north poles, which are separated because of a small distance. Inside the magnet, the direction of the magnetic moment is pointed towards the North Pole from the South Pole of the magnet.

The molecules that can have the high or low dipole moment can be predicted. In the case of molecular dipole moment, it is already mentioned above that the dipole moment exists or occurs when there is asymmetry among the charges of positive and negative throughout the molecules. Polarity of a molecule which is basically the dipoles can be easily determined experimentally after the measurement of the dielectric constant is done. When these works with the dipoles are being done, the geometry of the molecules is an important or crucial factor. After many experiments it has been found that the dipole moment in the molecules can be predicted. Not every molecule has the same amount of dipole moment and the examples has been provided above. Many molecules have the ionic bonds among them and this is the primary factor as the increase of these ionic bonds is equivalent to the increase of the dipole moments of a molecule. In contrast to ionic bonds, the molecules also have the characteristics of the covalent bonds. These covalent bonds are the another primary factors that decides the value of the dipole moments as when the covalent bonds decrease the dipole moments of an molecule also decrease.  

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