Fenestration can be defined as the arrangement, proportioning, design of the window or doors in a building. It can also be referred to as openings in the facades of a buildings, that is doors and windows that allows the passage of something from outside to inside. This can be explained by the following example , that holes in the skulls makes it lighter without compromising the strength , lightweight enough to make them spacious and larger.
The fundamental of fenestration is how much of a construction is covered with openings, particularly windows and the doors, or how transparent the enclosing glass is, or how the openings are arranged. These are some of the important issues related to fenestration.
Incorporation of the windows and fenestration into the design of a building is the fundamental integrated design activity. Decisions regarding the shape, type and the characteristics of the fenestrations are increasingly driven by the aesthetic concern, but the demand of energy conservation.
Fenestration permits daylight and prevailing wind to get inside the building when needed. However, the solar radiations might get inside through these fenestration. This can lead to a considerable gain of heat. It also influences the harvesting of the day light by the reduction of the lighting loads without compromising on the thermal and the visual components of the building. The designers and the architects can control the heat gain and loss by required designing of the fenestrations, having appropriate glazing and fenestration. The location, glazing and the sizing of the window can be judiciously used for the reduction of the cooling load and the smaller building cooling system. In order to achieve a balance between the penetration of the day light and the heat gain needs a careful calibration between the visual and heat transmission qualities of glazing, sizing of opening and orientation. Solar radiation has been found to be minimum on the north facing openings or the walls with the respect to quantum and duration, followed by the south facing facades. A large amount of solar radiation comes from the east and the west facing windows.
Some of the recommendations, involve reduction of the glazing area , as long as the uniformity of the distribution of the day light in a building is not affected.
Now, it is important to understand how fenestration impacts a structure in the practical sense. This can be manifested in a Roman temple. There are not much widow, as that can weaken the stability of the wall. Ancient builders have tried to build large structures without fenestrations, but the task had become much easier for the modern architects. The credit goes to the steel frames that are stronger and can distribute weight differently. With them, larger amount and numerous openings can be made in the facades of the larger structure. For the starters, fenestrations can be challenging, that greatly affects the functionality of the building. A shop owner , whose store in situated in front of a busy walkway, would of course contain lots of windows in the front for showing off their wares and attract the clients. There is a large difference in the fenestration used in the lower story and the upper story. Again, less number of fenestrations can be found in private spaces like bathroom. Again, before fenestration, it is necessary to keep in mind whether, it is permitting enough light to get inside the room. Furthermore natural lights and the amount of life permitted by the windows to get inside affects the mood and the circadian circle of an individual.
There are several types of fenestrations that plays an important role in the formation of the base for the openings along with the provision of a large scope for the development of customised design.
Slit windows- They are smallest openings that acts as fenestrations and they allow for the direct intake of direct as well as diffused light and create a an ambience of light and shadow. They are widely used for lighting up the passage and corridors.
Varieties of patterns and designs are used, which possess larger voids and several pattern designs can be achieved. They often act as transparent faced yet forming a bifurcation with the external environment.
Glazed or open window
They are the simplest type of fenestration that can be given many shapes along with varieties of curtains and are used with a variety of wooden frames and glasses. They are majorly used the in commercial buildings and in residential and in small scale housings.
These types of fenestrations are generally through and through window from floor to floor where the whole glazing is being supported by metal or wooden frames. They tends to light up the entire room. They are widely used in bungalows.
These fenestration serve dual purpose. They act as a partition as well as an open window. They fold vertically as well as horizontally. They are suitable for open kitchens as well as for interior allied spaces. They can also be used in small cafes as well as the kiosks, where counter needs to be opened d or closed.
The glazing types of fenestration system involves glass. Glass has been used in buildings and homes for several years for providing protection to the room from the weather and allowing the sunlight in the structure. Sloped glazing and skylight types of fenestration products have been used for 100 years for providing beautiful flashes of sunlight. Previously, the skylights were made up of plate glass in metal frames. Curtain walls system on the other hand involve the building of an envelope with aluminium and glass for protecting the inside of the building from the element and design a safe environment for the building occupants. Window walls type of fenestration are again innovative solutions for meeting market requirement for the ventilation, aesthetic cost, speed and flexibility.
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