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What Is Lysozyme? Function & Structure Of It: Works To Protect Body From Harm

Referencing Styles : MLA | Pages : 1

Lysozyme

Lysozyme can be better defined as a special enzyme which, is mainly found in found in tears, saliva, sweat, and other body fluids. There are many other secretions, from the living organisms particularly the human beings from which the secretions are found to be there and contain the enzyme lysozymes.  The lysozymes are very well known to be portrayed in the fairy tales; as the life giving saviour of the prince in distress. What if there was actually/really some magic in one’s tears. Therefore, one can say that it is unique enzymes which is found to protect the body from different harmful attacks. It is also found to protect and to prevent the harmful substances or better as the foreign substances which are found to attack or attempt to enter into our body through the passage ways. For example, in case of the tears, they prevent the entry of any kind of bacteria. But luckily the human beings have a tear film which acts as a shield to protect the eyes from such germs and bacteria. The very famous scientist Alexander Fleming who discovered lysozyme in the early twentieth century. While growing a bacterial culture, a drop of mucus from his nose fell into the culture. Eventually, he was found to have noticed that the bacteria in this culture had been killed. He named the substance lysozyme by combining two words: 'lyse' and 'enzyme'. The term lysozyme is found to be also called muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, which is an antimicrobial enzyme which is produced by the animals which also forms the part of the innate immune system.

They are often portrayed in fairy tales as the life-giving saviour of the prince in distress. But, what if there really was a little magic in our tears? Actually, our tears contain a powerful, unique enzyme called lysozyme that can protect our body from harm. Lysozyme is a special enzyme found in tears, saliva, sweat, and other body fluids. Other mucosal linings, such as the nasal cavity, also contain lysozyme. It destroys bacteria that attempt to enter our body through these passageways. In the case of tears, they protect our eyes from bacterial invaders. Don't worry, you don't have to cry for this protection to work: there's already a tear film, or liquid layer, that coats the eyes to keep them safe.

Secondly, Lysozyme is a glycoside hydrolase  which, plays a very significant role in catalysing the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine ramnents are found  in peptidoglycan, which is also the huge  component of the gram-positive bacteria cell wall. This hydrolysis in turn compromises the integrity of bacterial cell walls causing lysis of the bacteria.

Function & structure of Lysozyme

Lysozyme is abundantly found to be present in large amount in majorly the secretions of the human body like including several secretions such as the tears, saliva, human milk, and mucus. It is also found to be present in cytoplasmic granules of the macrophages and the polymorphonuclear neutrophils also known as the PMNs. Also in the egg white or better known as the albumin is found that lysozymes is present in a very good percentage. C-type lysozymes are very closely related to alpha-lactalbumin in sequence and structure wise thereby , making them part of the same glycoside hydrolase family 22 In humans, the C-type lysozyme enzyme is encoded by the 

Secondly, one can say Lysozyme is thermally stable, with a melting point reaching up to 72 ℃ at pH 5.0. However, in human milk it loses activity very quickly at that temperature. Its isoelectric point is 11.35. Lysozyme can survive in a large range of pH (6-9). The danger of the bacterial infection is also prevented with the help of the lysozymes enzyme.

Lysozyme is also found to protect us from the ever-present danger of bacterial infection. One can say that it actually is small enzyme that attacks the protective cell walls of bacteria. Bacteria is found to build a very  tough skin of carbohydrate chains, which is also interlocked by short peptide strands, that will  brace the delicate membrane against the high osmotic pressure of the cell. Talking about the osmotic, it can be said that the osmotic pressure is the phenomena when the molecules move from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration through a semi permeable membrane. Lysozyme breaks these carbohydrate chains, destroying the structural integrity of the cell wall. The bacteria burst under their own internal pressure.

Lysozyme is primarily structured as a single polypeptide that contains 129 amino acids and it is folded into a global and compact structure having a left cleft in the surface of protein. This cleft is considered to be the active site that is involved in binding the chain of bacterial carbohydrate and leaving it subsequently.

It works to protect our body from harm.

Lysozyme is an enzyme which has the characteristics of breaking down the wall of bacterial cell wall for improving the extraction efficiency of nucleic acid or protein. The bacteriolytic efficacy of lysozyme can be evaluated by identifying how its helps to protect the body from harm. It represents the hydrolytic enzyme that is present in the fluids of the body such as milk, gastric juice, serum and mucus secretions. It is indicated by the study that great microbial activity is exhibited against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria when it gets combined with the other components.

Lysozyme is used in the treatment of infectious disease and they help in killing the bacteria by way of two mechanism. It helps in causing the bacterial cell lysis along with targeting bacterial cell wall hydrolysis. The peptidoglycan monomer which has been synthesized newly consists of a disachharide, N-acetylmuramic acid that is anchored to the membrane using a lipid carrier and N-acetylglucosamine which is linked to the N-acetylmuramic acid. There is an action of glycosyltransferases which is considered as the growing chain with the help of which the monomers are added. Between the adjacent monomer N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid of 1 monomer, the β-1,4 glycosidic bond is hydrolyzed by the lysozyme. The bacterial cell dies and the cell wall becomes unstable due to the peptidoglycan of hydrolysis lysozyme. All the bacteria’s that are independent of the peptidoglycan hydrolysis is killed by lysosome using a mechanism along with its cationic nature. Lysozyme might result in the formation of pores on the cell membrane of bacteria due to cationic killing of bacteria.

Development of mechanism by the pathogenic bacteria to resist killing by lysozyme do not come as surprise given the potent activity and abundant of lysozyme against bacteria. In addition to this, the coupling role of a crucial immunomodulatory and the antimicrobial function of lysozyme results in releasing of bacteria from lysozyme and this can cause alteration of the innate immune system.

Macrophages and neutrophils producing lysozyme can be delivered to bacterium that contains phagosomes. Accordingly, it is more likely that the bacteria sensitive to lysozyme are degraded in the dependent manner. The response of immune system is modulated by the lysozyme. There is a release of PAMP due to killing of bacteria at the site of infection, there is a secretion of extracellular lysozyme by the epithelium. This results in the initiation of the response that is driven by epithelial and leads to the phagocyte recruitment. In addition to this, lysozyme is also considered to play an important role in driving the response that is pro inflammatory by systematically limiting the inflammation. This in turn causes a reduction in the pathology that is driven by inflammatory. They also have the function of limiting the inflammation of intestine and it has been shown that the secretion of lysozyme P combined and the failure of Paneth cells is correlated with the intestinal inflammation.

There are varieties of other immune dampening effects due to the addition exogenous lysozyme and by using the unknown mechanism, lysozyme helps in decreasing the production of an oxidative burst in neutrophils and decrement of chemotaxis. The prooxidant bioreactive derivatives and the extracellular is neutralized and directly bind with the help of lysozymes. However, during infection there could be secondary responses on the immune due to such interaction that blocks the lysosome enzymatic bactericidal activity. Furthermore, there are two purpose served by the bacteria degradation by the lysosome that is to release the immunomodulatory bacterial ligands which includes the fragments of peptidoglycan and killing bacteria. An important role is played by lysosome in limiting the growth of bacteria at other sites and mucosal surface where it can prevent dysbiosis by limiting the overgrowth of microbiota and also controlling potentially pathogenic bacteria. Phagocytes do not get particularly activated by the extracellular, concomitantly and soluble fragments of peptidoglycan. The extent of activation of phagocyte that is activated through PG is limited by the extracellular lysozyme. Also, the complement deposition on PG is limited by the extracellular lysozyme which results in the recruitment of more phagocytes and reducing the production of anaphylatoxin.

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