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CHILD ABUSE 0
Impact of child abuse in society
CHILD ABUSE 1
In circumstances indicating the damage to or threat of achild ...
CHILD ABUSE 0
Impact of child abuse in society
CHILD ABUSE 1
In circumstances indicating the damage to or threat of achild's physical condition or well-
being, child abuse or disregard is defined as physical or psychological injury, sexual abuse,
sex trafficking or mistreatment by aperson below 18. In this research, the impact,
consequences, indicators, and signs of child abuse are discussed to identify the root cause of
this evil practice prevalent in USA (Read, et al., 2018) .The studies have also proved that the
child abuse is hampering the growth of children by many parameters. The research was
pursued following the quantitative method busing the literature reviews of many journals
which recorded the cases and data of the previous child abusing in whole nation. The research
objective has one limitation that itshould also include the prominent ways to curb the cause
and eradicate the practice.
RESEARCH PAPER: CHILD ABUSE
Child abuse happens if, through action or inaction, aparent or caregiver causes injury,
demise, psychological distress or arisk of grave significant harm; Child abuse and neglect
can take various forms, including abandonment, physical abuse, sex assault, mistreatment,
and psychological abuse. greater than 3million child abuse reports are submitted in the
United States annually. Child abuse is not just achild's physical abuse. It is any form of adult
maltreatment that is violent or threatening to the child (Debowska et al., 2017) .Neglect is
included in this. Domestic violence is the result of child abuse in the home, and the abusive
partner is the parent or caregiver, for instance. However, sometimes, children are abused by
adults they are dependent on, such as day care professionals, educators and sport coaches.
Sometimes, but not always, abuse is deliberate. If parents or carers can no longer look after
the child, dysfunctional behaviour and abuse can occur. As aresult of child maltreatment,
impaired physical and mental illness can ultimately slow down the economic and social
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evolution of acountry. A child abused is more likely to abuse others as an adult and thus
transmit violence from generation to generation.
This cycle of violence must therefore be broken and positive multi-generational
effects can be created. Preventing child abuse is possible and requires amultispectral
approach before itbegins. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evil prevalent in society
which harms the existence of small children and hurts their dignity, stopping them from
dreaming and aspiring high for survival (Rosenthal, & Thompson, 2020) .This paper also
highlights the types and causes of child abuse in the USA. The paper includes the signs and
consequences of the child abuse which can give the idea to identify the injustice done.
PREVALENCE AND CASUES OF CHILD ABUSE IN USA
In 2016, itwas estimated that 676 thousand people were victims of abuse and neglect
or some 9,1 cases per 1,000 kids. The negligence, 18 percent physical abuse and 8.5 percent
child sexual abuse accounts for 75 percent of child abuse reports. The overall death rate
among 100,000 children was 2.36. Deaths. There is estimated to have been child abuse and/or
neglect for at least 1of 7kids in the US in recent years. Neglect, followed by physiological
abuse, mental abuse, and sexual abuse is the most traumatic experience (Rosenthal, &
Thompson, 2020) .One of the worst records among industrialized countries –the loss of
children due to child abuse and neglect per day, on average between four and seven.
In several circumstances, children may be abused. Here are scenarios for the
victimization of achild:
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Violence at home
Children are prone to become victims of abuse in homes where domestic violence is
common. Men who abuse their wives also take responsibility for their children's abuse at
Drug and alcohol abuse
Child abuse may be the responsibility of parents with ahistory of alcohol and drug
abuse. Substance addiction dependence is one of the leading sources of child abuse and ill-
treatment, including neglect. Parents who abuse alcohol are intended to intervene child abuse
in children under the age of five or even smaller (Debowska, et al., 2017) .
The untreated mental illness of aparent is acommon cause of child maltreatment.
Manic depression or any other mental illness can make parents unavailable for their children.
A mother may be removed from her children or suspect that the child will attack her in
extreme cases. The suffering of aparent often leads to the abuse of achild.
Lack of parenting skills
Most parents have natural skills, but few are able to effectively manage their physical
and emotional needs. Many parents mistake child discipline for child abuse and require
counselling services to better understand their role as parents.
Lack of Support and Stress
When their caregivers or parents are stressed, many children face psychological
maltreatment. The emotional needs of achild, especially in stressful situations, can be
CHILD ABUSE 4
difficult for parents to cope with. Parents may escort to abuse by their children by divorce,
relationship issues, financial worry and work-related struggle.
Signs of abuse
In the minds of family members who are unable to be around their child, there is
always anagging fear and doubt about her safety. When you don't know what to look for, it's
easy to ignore or overlook signs of abuse. Check with your child to see if anything out of the
ordinary has happened to him or her during the day, whether at school or in day-care. Inquire
whether she is uneasy or afraid of aparticular situation or person (Amrit, et al., 2017) .They
should also keep an eye out for any physical or emotional changes. Signs of physical injury,
as well as constant crying and fussiness, are clear indicators that their child has been abused.
TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE/VIOLENCE IN USA
When aparent or caretaker tends to cause achild non-accidental actual injury, this is
considered physical abuse. There are numerous indications of physical abuse. Please seek
immediate assistance if you notice any of the following symptoms (Rosenthal, & Thompson,
2020) .Physical abuse was reported as achild by 28.3 percent of adults.
Actions including Physical Abuse
Poisoning, trembling, trying to throw, stunning, biting, unwanted sexual tickling,
suffocating or drowning, excessive yanking, banging, or stumbling, any other physical injury,
tying or forcing the kid into adepressed situation, threatening to withhold sleep, food, or
medicines, burning or scalding, etc., are all prohibited and are some deliberate violent
activities which are performed by the defaulters to small innocent children. It can also include
CHILD ABUSE 5
making up asymptom or purposefully triggering sickness in achild, as in Munchausen's
syndrome, now accepted as afictitious disorder forced on others (FDAI). In many nations,
death penalty is even more viewed as atype of child abuse.
Sexual abuse occurs when an adult exploits achild for sexual reasons or involves a
child in sexual actions. It also includes situations in which an older or more strong child takes
advantage of another child for self-pleasure or excitement. According to 20.7 percent of
adults, they were sexually ill-treated as achild. Any act that coerces or entices ayoungster to
engage in sexual activity is considered sexual abuse (Seddighi, et al., 2019). Even if the kid is
not aware of what is going on but there is no compel, brutality, or even physical touch, itis
sexual abuse. When achild is put on or invited to take part in any action that involves the
other to become aroused, sex assault occurs.
Actions including Sexual Abuse
Touching outside of outfits, rubbing, kissing, and sexual activity, watching others
perform sex actions or getting achild to see such acts, going to look at, demonstrating, or
sharing sexual pictures, videos, toys, or various other material, telling filthy jokes or stories,
forcing or alluring achild to strip off for sexual grudges, and penetrating assault such as rape
(Rosenthal, & Thompson, 2020). Abuse can be committed by an grown-up male, adult
female, or any other child, most commonly ateenager who has arrived at puberty, though
younger persons may also be involved.
CHILD ABUSE 6
When aparent or carer damages or causes massive mental pain or amental or social
progress of achild, this is known as emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is very often a
behavioural pattern that triggers long-term damage, even though one incident can be regarded
as abuse. 10.6% of adults disclose childhood emotional abuse. Emotional abuse happens
when people repeatedly claim to be insufficient, unloved, unworthy, or only valued according
to someone else's requirements and do stuff to the child. (Todahl, et al., 2019). It can have
long-term effects on the child.
Signs of Emotional Abuse
Enabling the children to speak out, criticising what they say, often screaming at or
hurting the children, punishing achild "silent," limiting the affection of the human being,
telling them that they are "no good" or "error," Emotional abuse involves behaviors such as
preventing normal social interaction with colleagues and others, ill-treatment of another
person before achild, such as family violence, bullying, for instance, online bullying,
psychological manipulation and so forth. (Amrit et al., 2017).
When aparent or caretaker fails to provide the necessary care, regulation, love, and
assistance for achild's health, protection, and well-being, this is referred to as child neglect.
Child neglect involves physical neglect and insufficient supervision, as well as healthcare,
sentimental, and educational neglect (Todahl, et al., 2019). Child neglect arise when aparent
or caregiver continuously fails to meet achild's fundamental health needs, causing harm to
the children's wellbeing or development.
Signs of Neglect
CHILD ABUSE 7
Situating achild in abedroom or wardrobe, which does not provide for sufficient essentials
including the refusal or exclusion of achild, placing or abandoning achild where sentimental
or physic danger or damage may be present, leaving achild on its own or causing harm, for a
prolonged period, etc. In actions such as disregarding the normal physiological needs of a
child, among several other things, neglect is evident.
CONSEQUENCES AND IMPACT OF CHILD ABUSE
Because study on the impact of child mistreatment is uneven, we do not up till now
understand the purpose of specific types or numerous forms of abuse on children. Much
thought has been paid in recent years to the consequences of child sexual abuse, mainly the
victim's adolescence sexual behaviour (Fisher-Owens, Lukefahr, & Tate, 2017). Child
neglect and physical abuse have received less attention in the long and short term. Only lately
has public awareness extended to include an understanding of psychological ramifications of
even the most delicate forms of emotional abuse.
Physical and Medical Consequences
Neglect and abuse can lead to grave health problems which have along-term effect on
the development of children. Previous studies in sexually abused children found significant
neuro-motor disabilities, including functioning of the central nervous system, physical
ailments, growth and intellectual disabilities as well as serious speech problems. Physically
abused children are more affective in neurology, physical congestion, and skin markings and
bruises than their unabused counterparts (Zeanah, & Humphreys, 2018). Children who have
CHILD ABUSE 8
been sexually assaulted, as well as some who've been physically abandoned, have shown
signs of increased sexuality and genital decease. A particularly grim biological result of child
and youth sex assault is the threat of sexual diseases such as the human immunodeficiency
virus, gonorrhoea, and tuberculosis.
Cognitive and Intellectual Consequences
Disappointment to manage for important variables like socioeconomic status, as well
as the statistical power of little sample sizes, may be linked to the cognitive and intellectual
repercussions of childhood trauma. Other possible explanations for this children's literature
discrepancies include previous studies' tendency to aggregate multiple kinds of maltreatment
or the development of children who already had neurological dysfunction (Miragoli, et al.,
2018). More fresh studies have exempted children with evident neurological impairments.
Maltreatment, particularly early social ostracisation, can, on the other hand, cause central
nervous system damage, resulting in future cognitive problems.
Certain signs of brutal neglect (for example, when achild starts dehydration,
diarrhoea, or malnourishment without receiving necessary treatment) may result in behavioral
problems, concentration deficits, inferior social skills, and less mental maturity, according to
some studies. Physical child abuse can lead to delays in infants and very young children
developing stable connections to an adult caregiver. Poorly attached children are more likely
than non-maltreated kids to have low self-esteem and, as aresult, anegative self-image
(Miragoli, et al., 2018) .In numerous studies, school-age effects of physical mistreatment
were associated with poorer self-esteem on self-report and parent-report initiatives, but no
interactions were detected in others. The cost of neglectful actions can be especially brutal
CHILD ABUSE 9
and influential in the early stages of achild's growth. According to the researcher, maternal
disinterest and lack of accessibility can jeopardise the growth of bonding and affection
involving achild and parent, affecting the neglected child's aspirations of adult accessibility,
affect, trouble solving, social connections, and ability to deal with with new or tense
Physical and antisocial attacks are couple of the early childhood effects of physical
child abuse most frequently documented. In many studies, physical aggressiveness and
antisocial behaviour have been documented, including summer programs and daycare
facilities, parenting ratings or employees, other actions such as child narratives or
observation-based predictors. According to some studies, physically abused children are more
aggressive than other adolescent females, while neglected children are more dysfunctional
(Maguire-Jack, & Font, 2017). Children who have been abused may be less proficient in their
social interaction. Some abused children may retract or avoid, as well as experience fear,
disappointment, and violent behaviour.
Ensuring safety of Child
Any policy or initiative that addresses or prevents children's exposure to violence, abuse,
neglect, or exploitation is referred to as child safety. It refers to protecting children from any
perceived or real danger/risk. It helps to reduce their vulnerability in potentially dangerous
situations. It also entails preventing social, mental, and emotional negative emotions in
children (Lindberg, & Scribano, 2017). Child Protection must ensure that no child falls
outside of the social quality and security net, and that those who do are given the support and
treatment they need to be reintegrated into the support system. While every child has the right
CHILD ABUSE 10
to be protected, some children are especially susceptible than others, such as street children,
children with disabilities, children of sexually active adolescents, child labourers, and so on.
Child protection is important in all settings: at home, school, in the neighbourhood, in the
society, and in care homes.
When achild is adored, cared for, and protected: Strong relationships and positive
sexual bonds with parents can have along-term impact on achildren's health. Child
safety is greatly enhanced when achild can speak to his or her mom and dad without
inhibitions or reservations, and when achild is accepted and respected by his or her
mother and relatives (Zeanah, & Humphreys, 2018) .
A child is nurtured when he or she receives the necessary food and good nutrition,
health care, and education, when he or she lives in ahealthy and peaceful ecosystem,
and when he or she has opportunities for advancement.
There are safeguards in place to ensure the physical safety of the child includes Fire
safety measures, for example, are in place, coaxial wires and cables and plug points
are coated, window frames have lockable grills, compound walls and security officers
are in place for large structures like communities and schools, staircase safety
measures are implemented, drainage gutters are coated, and wells and bore reservoirs
are filled, and so on. Human guidance and tracking are also provided (Lindberg, &
Scribano, 2017) .
A child is not physiologically, emotionally, or sexually abused.
When achild understands how to defend himself or herself. When parents or society
instil confidence in their children by exposing them to, teaching them about, and
providing information about personal safety. When achild understands who to contact
and where to go in the event of asecurity emergency.
CHILD ABUSE 11
When achild believes in the structures, systems, and persons in power of protecting
children. When such systems and processes are in place and functioning properly.
When achild is in danger:
A neglected child is not loved or cared for, then he or she has anyone with whom
to communicate. Even the prospect of love and affection of been deprived can
threaten young kids.
A children shall be discrimination based on sex, skill, understanding, colour,
appearance, language, race, nationality, religion, etc.
A child is discriminated against physically abused. OR is physically abused and
A child is tormented mentally, harassed or living in astressful environment. OR is
atestimony to torture, abuse or harassment of the mind.
Substance abuse is experienced OR witnessed by achild (Zeanah, & Humphreys,
A child undergoes verbal abuse or bears witness.
A child's sexual abuse has been perpetrated. OR is asexual abuse victim.
A child is cheated or taken advantage of. As asociety, every child in our families,
neighbourhoods, communities, provinces, states and countries must be safe and
FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS
It has been found that there are several indicators through which itcan be viewed as
child abuse symptoms and consequences on the mind, health, and physical well-being of the
children. Serious symptoms of self-destructive actions are the self-harm, the suicide attempts
and the abuse of drugs or alcohol; the behaviour of students may model negative conduct or
CHILD ABUSE 12
imitate negative at home, and verbal communication used at home; Symptoms of severe
developments, depression, anxiety, withdrawal, or aggressiveness, may be significant for
children, can be seen (Lindberg, & Scribano, 2017) .We frequently see children pleading on
the street or being physically ill-treated in the community, and we occasionally come across a
missing child or astreet child who appears to be ill. In such cases, we have asimple but
critical role to play. Always prioritise the child over all other significant tasks, and do not
ignore the circumstances. There are many things you can do to help stop abuse or to stop itas
soon as possible: Make apersonal contribution to help; Look for systemic community hold
up for the family. Please contact CWC.
CHILD ABUSE 13
Amrit, C., Paauw, T., Aly, R., & Lavric, M. (2017). Identifying child abuse through text
mining and machine learning. Expert systems with applications ,88 ,402-418.
Debowska, A., Willmott, D., Boduszek, D., & Jones, A. D. (2017). What do we know about
child abuse and neglect patterns of co-occurrence? A systematic review of profiling
studies and recommendations for future research. Child Abuse & Neglect ,70 ,100-111.
Fisher-Owens, S., Lukefahr, J., & Tate, A. (2017). Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse
and Neglect. Pediatrics ,140 (2), e20171487. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-1487
Lindberg, D., & Scribano, P. (2017). A child abuse research network: Now what?. Child
Abuse & Neglect ,70 ,406-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.04.010
Maguire-Jack, K., & Font, S. A. (2017). Community and individual risk factors for physical
child abuse and child neglect: Variations by poverty status. Child maltreatment ,22 (3),
Miragoli, S., Balzarotti, S., Camisasca, E., & Di Blasio, P. (2018). Parents' perception of
child behavior, parenting stress, and child abuse potential: Individual and partner
influences. Child abuse & neglect ,84 ,146-156.
Read, J., Harper, D., Tucker, I., & Kennedy, A. (2018). Do adult mental health services
identify child abuse and neglect? A systematic review. International Journal of Mental
Health Nursing ,27 (1), 7-19.
Rosenthal, C. M., & Thompson, L. A. (2020). Child abuse awareness month during the
coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. JAMA pediatrics ,174 (8), 812-812.
CHILD ABUSE 14
Seddighi, H., Salmani, I., Javadi, M. H., & Seddighi, S. (2021). Child abuse in natural
disasters and conflicts: asystematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(1), 176-
Todahl, J. L., Brown, T., Barkhurst, P., Maxey, V., & Simone, A. (2019). Pathways to child
abuse prevention: Seeking and embedding public opinion. Journal of interpersonal
Zeanah, C. H., & Humphreys, K. L. (2018). Child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American
Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry ,57 (9), 637-644.
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