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Research Question and Response
Research Question and Response
Research Question : In patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms , do lifestyle changes
lead to reduced Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms compared to medication?
Population : Patients with Reflux Symptoms
Interventions : Lifestyle Changes
Comparison : Medication
Outcome : Reduced Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms
In the United States, about 44% of adults have been affected by gastroesophageal reflux
symptoms due to various factors (Ness -Jensen et al., 2016). I usually come across patients
suffering from gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, being a GI nurse. People of all ages are prone
to be affected by gastroesophageal reflux symptoms . However, in this discussion, my main point
of research will be based on adult patients. Currently, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are
treated with proton -pump inhibitors (PPIs). These fall under the first line of treatment of this
particular condition. Within the time I have been in service, I have noticed that most people with
reflux symptoms do not love proton -pump inhibitors a nd other medications to be administered to
them. Recent s tudie s have linked extensive use of proton -pump inhibitors (PPIs) to various
diseases lie kidney disease and Alzheimer’s Disease. This is one of the primary reasons I would
like to know more if reflux symptom s can be eliminated through lifestyle factors. I will be basing
my information through the scope o f reliable clinical research.
Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms usually occur in varying severity depending on their
causes. For example, while some patients experience unrelenting and persistent reflex es b ecause
of a hiatal hernia, others only experience reflux symptoms after eating a meal containing high -fat
levels (Patrick, 2011). Esophageal dysplasia (Barrett’s Esophagus) can be caused if
gastroesophageal reflux symptom is not treated . Esophageal cancer can then be caused after this
(Alsop & Sharma, 2016) . Therefore, esophageal cancer can be avoided by treating the
gastroesophageal reflux symptom . Potentially harmful sequelae of reflux like bleeding ulcers that
lead to food impactions can be avoided by tr eating the reflex symptoms.
As highlighted previously, there has been a mixed reaction within the healthcare sector of
whether or not to use the PPIs. This is because they have been identified to pose a risk of
developing other diseases. As such, I think it is high time to search for other treatment plans that
can be used for reflux. The big question that needs to be addressed now is whether reflux
symptoms can be prevented by changing lifestyle factors. By going through various peer -review
literature, I can now believe that the gastroesophageal reflux symptom and its related damages
can be prevented using lifestyle changes. Nonetheless, the patient is supposed to strictly follow
the regiment the same way they would do for medication. This would provide a better platform
for both the lifestyle changes and the medication to be compared .
In summation, my PICO question is , “In patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux
Symptoms, do lifestyle changes lead to reduced Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms compared
to medication? ” Recent peer -reviewed articles will be used in research this question. T his is a
topic I have selected due to its relevance in my area of practice. This concep t can be used by all
nurses, regardless of the specialization , since numerous people in the society are suffering from
Alsop, B. R ., & Sharma, P. (2016). Esophageal cancer. Gastroenterology Clinics , 45 (3), 399 -
Casale, M., Sabatino, L., Moffa, A., Capuano, F., Luccarelli, V., Vitali, M., & ... Salvinelli, F.
(2016). Breathing training on lower esophageal sphincter as a complementary treatment
of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a systematic review. European Review For
Medical And Pharmacological Sciences , 20 (21), 4547 -4552.
Ness -Jensen, E., Hveem, K., El -Serag, H., & Lagergren, J. (2016). Perspectives in clinical
gastroenterology and hepatology: Lifestyle intervention in gastroesophageal reflux
disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 14 , 175 -182.
Patrick, L. (2011). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A Review of Conventional and
Alternative Treatments. Alternative Medicine Review , 16 (2), 116 -133.
Response to a Peer
Hello peer , I would like to commend you for selecting such a good t opic to research on.
Your research question was also well -framed and easy to comprehend. I like your discussion of
how type 2 diabetes mellitus is growing to be a significant health concern in Australia and
worldwide . For this reason, the healthcare sector should come up with effective measure to help
curb the increasing rate of people who are developing diabetes . I like the approach you have
taken to show that both diet and physical exercises can prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus.
However, you have also not ed an issue about the physical activity being minimally applied in the
intervention programs. You have attributed this to the lack of knowledge among the healthcare
professionals regarding the existence of the exercise programs. You also highlighted that it is
easier for the patient to follow up with the prescribed medication than physical activity.
Therefore, more research regarding how physical activity can prove beneficial to diabetic
patients must be conducted. I also researched a little bit on your research topic and found some
supporting information. For example, some studies have shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes is
reduced (Cradock et al., 2017). The magnitude of the risk reduc tion was attenuated for
adjustment for differences in body mass index between the active and inactive participants (Hui
et al., 2014). However, the diabetes risk was still reduced by 20 -30% with a high level of
physical activity even when adjustments were made (Aune et al., 2015). A range of activities of
both moderate and vigorous -intensity have proved beneficial in conferring diabetes. Therefore, it
is also possible for significant results to be obtained even when patients engage in regular light -
intensit y activities (Bao et al., 2014).
Some of the major predisposing factor s as far as obesity is involved include a positive
family history, obese people, and impaired glucose regulation. Therefore the risk reduction
related to higher physical activity tends to be greater among these people. These are the people
that are at an increased baseline risk of the disease. The risk of progression to diabetes was
found to be reduced when adults with impaired glucose tolerance participated in 150 minutes of
moderate p hysical activity. The effect was even higher when weight was also lost in the process.
With this said, I believe that healthcare practitioners are better positioned to ensure that
type 2 diabetic patients engage in a healthy diet and physical exercise as a proper treatment
measure. Therefore , future research studies should focus on information about the physical
activities that healthcare professionals can recommend as effective treatment to the patients. I
remember you also highlighted that most patients shun away physical activities because of their
demanding nature. However, as discussed in the literature above, light -intensity activities a lso
reduce the type 2 diabetes risk. Doctors and nurses should therefore recommend these light
intensity activities to patients. Overall, I found your post to be quite informative.
Aune, D., Norat, T., Leitzmann, M., Tonstad, S., & Vatten, L. J. (2015). Physical activity and the
risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose -response meta -analysis. European
journal of epidemiology , 30 (7), 529 -542.
Bao, W., Tobias, D. K., Bowers, K., Chavarro, J., Vaag, A., Grunnet, L. G., ... & Zhang, C.
(2014). Physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with risk of progression
from gestatio nal diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort
study. JAMA internal medicine , 174 (7), 1047 -1055.
Cradock, K. A., ÓLaighin, G., Finucane, F. M., Gainforth, H. L., Quinlan, L. R., & Ginis, K. A.
M. (2017). Behavior change techniques targeting diet and physical activity in type 2
diabetes: A systematic review and meta -analysis. International Journal of Behavioral
Nutrition and Physical Activity , 14 (1), 1 -17.
Hui, S. S. C., Hui, G. P. S., & Xie, Y. J. (2014). Association between physica l activity
knowledge and levels of physical activity in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. PloS
one , 9(12), e115098.
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