Write a Research Proposal on the topic Climate Change And Geotechnical Hazards. Assignment and format requirement along with the Literature review is attached. Please note, attached literature review received marks only. Proposal must include Title Abstract Introduction Aim, Expected Outcomes and Research Questions Study Design and Approach Experimental (Theoretical frame work, Model development, Model evaluation and Validation),Data Analysis Methods Limitations Timeline References.
Climate Change And Geotechnical Hazards
The topic entails climate change which is a global challenge that has no borders and to eradicate this problem, a team effort is required from all sectors, beneath public, private institution and also the citizens in general. Climate change should be taken seriously since it is dangerous to humans and the environment at large. The primary concern of climate change is global warming which has detrimental effects on human, biological and physical systems. Literature Review The global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect, a natural process by which heat from the sun is retained by the atmosphere permitting the earth to maintain the required conditions to host life.
The average temperature of the planet should be -18 degrees Celsius (Muluneh, 2017). An increase in the global temperature brings a devastating result, endangering the endurance of the earth’s flora including human beings. Even though there are so many factors contributing to change in the climate such as human factors, global warming is the main cause of climate change and it has several negative impacts on physical, human and biological systems (Gordon, 2017). The engineering behaviour of soils and the geological environment is affected by the climatic conditions.
With the occurrence of extreme droughts, tides, storms and several geotechnical hazards have been induced. Some examples of geotechnical hazards include landslides, volcanic eruption, floods and earthquake (Khan, 2011). Lyappan (2018) claims that the landslides can be altered by climate change via increasing air temperatures, the intensity and more frequent rains. Landslides entail mass movement of earth, debris and rock. Climate change causes an increase in temperature and this causes the instability of the slope thereby enhancing the thermal breakdown of rocks.
The change in climate intensifies the cycling between dry and wet periods which may act to widen the gaps in the soil and rock thus contributing to a decrease in the stability of the soil. However, the soil stability is also reduced by the heavy rain events. The water table is raised, erodes the surface sediments, higher stream flow and more sediment can be transported downstream during these events. The high water table contributes to the loss of vegetation due to the cause of erosion (Lyappan, 2018). Earthquake arose deep within the earth and usually results from the heat from the mantle and the pull at subduction zones. Melting and movement of glaciers are caused by human-induced climate change and can also trigger the earthquakes (Steg, 2018).
Usually climate change has the potential of changing the rainfall pattern, intensities, amount and the number of days of precipitation such that there are certain days or months the rainfalls is received than before. When the amount of rainfall increases, the runoff and erosion increases at a greater rate; the ratio of erosion increase to annual rainfall increases is on the order of 1.7 (Marris, 2004). According to Gordon (2017), in a case of volcanic eruption, it alters the climate by ejecting ash and smoke into the atmosphere. As the atmosphere gets warmer, ice melting from these mountains removes support from their slopes potentially leading to landslides and collapse. However, the eruption is triggered by a landslide which can destabilise the magma chamber and trigger an eruption (McBean, 2004).
Literature gaps Some of the gaps identified from the research include;
• The research fails to explain whether climate change is considered a risk or an opportunity.
• The literature fails to list some of the solutions international bodies have put in place to curb the issue of climate change.
• The literature fails to highlight ways in which educative measures can be enhanced to improve climate change awareness among various citizens.