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Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY
Name of the Student
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Preschool students are vuln ...
Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Preschool students are vulnerable to understand the concepts of discipline and focus for
their learning. The pre schooling system is often attributed with the concept of lack of motivation
and struggle of the teachers to retain the attention of the children (Núñ ez & Le ón, 2015) .Lack of
proper motivation is also areason behind inattentiveness of the children within the classroom.
Promoting student motivation for the students of K-6 grade is extremely important as they are
creating their basic understanding to enter into the stage of adolescence. They are preparing
themselves to move into the greater world. Along with this, primary schools with an inclusive
environment for learning includes students with special abilities. Hence, the teacher needs to
include different kinds of reinforcement to keep the students motivated in educational activities.
The paper aims to describe the effectiveness of reward system as a means of
reinforcement to keep the students motivated at classroom. In this section, the selected grades for
the students are K-6 that means elementary education. Along with this, the paper will provide
reason behind implementing or avoiding reward system to motivate the children in the
elementary educational phase.
Reward system in education
Reward system is an integral part of educational psychology. It includes one single
question that includes whether punishment or rewards influence the students to retain their
motivation within education. Núñ ez & Le ón(2015) mentioned the concept of self-determination
theory where the researchers stated human being need certain kind of force to remain operant or
perform any action. Traditional theory of self-determination contains the elements of B.F
Skinner ’sconcept of operant behaviour. The theory of operant conditioning is also termed as
instrumental conditioning. It is amethod consider learning as anormal attribute where responses
of certain consequences determine the tendency of repeating the activity.
Sears & Pai (2012) consider the theory of operant conditioning by B. F Skinner helps to
understand the complex human characteristic features. Skinner mentioned the best way to get the
desired result is to understand the causes of action taken by the individual. The researcher also
mentioned that Skinner ’stheory is based on the concept of Thorndike ’sLaw of effect. Skinner
introduced the original term that is known as reinforcements. On the other hand, Skinner also
categorised the responses according to the root cause of action namely – natural operant,
reinforcement and punishers (Núñ ez & Le ón, 2015) .Natural operant is the responses that appear
from the environment that neither enhance or lessen the probability of a certain time of
behaviour to be repeated. Reinforcers refers to the responses appear from the environment that
enhances the probability of abehaviour to be repeated. Finally, punishers is the response from
an environment that allows adeclining likelihood of acertain kind of behaviour to be repeated.
Reward system is the reinforcers that preschool teachers use to motivate the students to
perform well in their academic sessions. Many of the local primary schools include the reward
system such as acknowledging the merit in front of the entire school and providing merit cards or
other token of acknowledgement (Brody et al., 2017) .Students can get enough motivation by
these programs of annual academic prize ceremony where they get acknowledged for their study
or academic performance throughout the year. On the other hand, punishments can demotivate
students to perform with complete dedication within the entire academic session.
Understanding the complexity and interactional nature of childhood development
Teachers need to learn about the psychological constructs of the students especially from
the standard of K-6. Ryan & Deci (2017) mentioned psychological science contain much
elements to enhance the teaching and learning procedures. In this regard, the researcher
mentioned that rewards are an integral part of scaffolding in context to the cooperative learning
procedure. Children learn faster at school instead of studying alone at home. Studies contain the
evidence that cooperative learning is one of the forms of reward that helps students develop
learning faster. Adolescence in this stage of learning (K-6) seeks the opportunities to establish
the self. On the other hand, students seek to establish autonomy in this particular phase.
Mendis (2017) demonstrated autonomy as the ability to think, make decisions, feel and
act on their own or according to their feeling. Cooperative learning provides multiple scenarios
for the students. It can be compared as acanvas with multiple abstract figures for the children.
They select ideal figure that is pleasing or appealing to them and take decision to perform like or
better than others. Slavin (2015) mentioned, developing autonomy through building relationship
with the family members and other people outside their family members is important. During
these preteen stages, they want different opportunities to establish themselves. Teachers as well
as the parents can fail to fulfil the demands of the students as they try to make decision, demand
the feeling of self-reliance and the sense of conformity.
Decision-making ability allows the students to get older. During this time, adolescents try
to weigh different options and want to visualise the possible consequences of these options. On
the other hand, Ali, Dahie & Ali (2016) mentioned self-reliance establishment help the children
to grow their interest in particular field. Finally, conformity is also known as an important aspect
during this stage. Conformity also known as ‘peer pressure ’that assures, young kids of the
standards of seven or eight get more influenced by the classmates of peers than parents. Fatima
(2015) mentioned there are three different types of autonomy including emotional autonomy,
behavioural autonomy and value autonomy.
Emotional autonomy refers to establishing personal feeling and relating it to the required
field. Morgan et al., (2014) mentioned during this phase of learning students start depending on
themselves and the peers instead of parents. The researcher also mentioned at the time of crisis
students with emotional autonomy try to solve the problem on their own. Behavioural autonomy
is connected to behaviour of an individual. It allows an individual to take decision as their
maturity allow. They often contain the behaviour of taking advises from the adults and solve any
problem. Finally, the value autonomy refers to the independent attitude where aperson beliefs
allow them to take decisions. Adolescents ’capability to think the problems by categorising the
specific and general situations. Ronimus et al., (2014) mentioned development of autonomy
varies from person to person. Not all the children K-6 grade develop autonomy from this stage.
There are children who start thinking the self as an independent being from much later stage or at
the stage of late adulthood.
Implication of this concepts for professional practice
Teachers need to understand the concepts of autonomy to secure motivation of the
students. According to Aguinis, Bradley & Brodersen (2014) ,there are two different kinds of
motivations the teachers need to focus for. The first is the intrinsic motivation refers to the
intensity through which an adolescence can study. They can understand the importance of study
and relevance of study for future life. The author mentioned that intrinsic motivation is
associated with the concepts of satisfaction, interest, pleasure through performing different
activities. Implementing rewards can fetch temporary results as mentioned by the researchers.
For example, children with the fear in aparticular subject such as mathematics can put more
stress to get good score and getting any ascribed rewards (Núñ ez & Le ón, 2015) .However, itthe
subject fails to appeal the emotional field of the students, itwill not provide similar results all the
Hussain et al., (2016) mentioned about the autonomous motivation that refers to the
ability of thinking and making decision by their own. Students from the standard of K-6 cannot
achieve success through autonomous motivation. At this age, they contain lesser ability to take
the right decision due to lack of experience. Considering the self-determination theory, autonomy
need to develop at acertain level. Teachers need to be conscious whether they are going beyond
their control as autonomous motivation can introduce different negative attitude include
disobeying or disrespecting the opinions of adults. Rewards are basically and integral part of the
extrinsic motivation where teachers can get the desired outcome instantly and short-term basis.
Yunisa, Aliyu & Ezeani (2017) mentioned to understand the complex nature of children
of this standard, it is important to the understand the theory of basic psychological needs. The
author consider it as amini theory to understand the basic psychological needs of the children.
The needs include – autonomy, competence and the concept of relatedness. Relation between
autonomy and children motivation is already mentioned in the initial section. Zheng et al., (2015)
mentioned these basic psychological needs are depended on different kind of social factors
responsible for supporting motivation among the children. The social factors include
environment, school environment and the society. In the school environment, autonomy support
needs to be included to support better performance of the students.
Rationale for including reward system in preschools
From the aforementioned discussion, some general benefits and importance of reward
system in supporting student psychology and education system can be observed. Firstly, itwould
be better to implement reward system at school to shape behaviour of the children. Depending on
the nature of reward (intrinsic or extrinsic) students become able to develop certain positive
behaviour. Secondly, teachers can secure student motivation within the classroom. They will
show interest in certain field where they usually lack interest before implementing reward system.
They start to take responsibilities on their own and start learning driven by their own urge.
Thirdly, teachers can make a joyful environment for teaching and learning. As Woo (2014)
mentioned, social factors such as environment play agreater role in securing motivation of the
students. Fourthly, teachers can boost the self-esteem of the students through proper rewards
(Núñ ez & Le ón, 2015) .Students try to acknowledge their own capability after getting the right
kind of rewards from the school. Finally, reward system helps the students to become
independent. They start to complete their own homework and better academic result at the end.
In conclusion, it can be said that, child psychology is not that complicated as common
people consider. They need proper shaping, nurturance and guidance by the adults to perform as
an independent. The entire discussion showcases different theories that speaks about some
common psychological traits. Children of the standards of K-6 are on the stage of young
adolescence and they ae vulnerable to any kind of influences. As study mentioned, they start
depending or influenced by the peers of someone of their age. Hence, adults also need to think
from their perspective and understand what they demand in return. Hence, reward system for the
students of K-6 is appropriate and can be considered as an important tool to grow interest as well
as secure motivation of the children. Highly motivated students can score good grades by active
participation in school activities.
Aguinis, H., Bradley, K. J., & Brodersen, A. (2014). Industrial –organizational psychologists in
business schools: Brain drain or eye opener?. Industrial and Organizational
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the mediating effect of job satisfaction: Survey from Secondary schools in
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PRINCIPLES FROM PSYCHOLOGY FOR PREK –12 CREATIVE, TALENTED, AND
GIFTED STUDENTS ’TEACHING AND LEARNING . American Psychological
Fatima, S. A. F. (2015). Comparative Study of Public and Private Educational Institutes towards
the Recruitment, Retention and Reward of Their Teachers.
Hussain, S. N., Hameed, A., Shah, Z. A., & Aslam, M. M. (2016). Understanding relationship
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Yunisa, A. Y., Aliyu, A. A., & Ezeani, V. O. (2017) ANALYSIS OF
STUDENTS ’PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF
PUNISHMENT AND REWARD AS A STRATEGY IN MANAGING CLASSROOM
IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
Zheng, S., Rosson, M. B., Shih, P. C., & Carroll, J. M. (2015, February). Understanding student
motivation, behaviors and perceptions in MOOCs. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM
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