1. Choose all of the correct answers associated with the following statement:
Staying upright during quiet stance .......
Usually begins with muscular actions at the base of support.
requires a hip strategy of control with exaggerated upper body movement.
is evidence by movement of the body that is like an inverted pendulum that is hinged at the ankle joints.
is controlled by modulating the activity of only hip flexor and hip extensor muscles.
is regulated by modulating ankle stiffness via muscle contraction about the ankle joint.
relies solely on the passive properties of ligaments.
2. If a child is standing in a room in which the walls that the child is facing are able to be moved towards the child then the child will
move medially and laterally
all of the above
3. If a person is standing on a surface that suddenly starts to move they will employ an ankle strategy of postural stabilisation in which the muscles are recruited in which order?
anterior to posterior sequence
posterior to anterior sequence
distal to proximal sequence
proximal to distal sequence
all at once
4. If a person suddenly raises their arm to pick up an object while they are standing upright the first muscles to be activated are:
muscles acting about the hip joint
muscles acting about the ankle joint
5. Select the answers that are correct from the following statements.
Somatosensory deficits resulting from diabetic neuropathy lead to a marked increas in postural instability.
There are no alterations in postural stability as a result of diabetic neuropathy.
People with diabetic neuropathy may also have deficits in visual function and muscle strength.
Diabetic neuropathy patients have a sequence of distal to proximal muscle activation in response to a moving surface on which they are standing.
Diabetic neuropathy patients have a delayed onset of sequence of distal to proximal muscle activation in response to a moving surface on which they are standing.
Diabetic neuropathy patients have normal ability to scale their postural response to different velocities and amplitudes of a moving surface on which they are standing
6. Vibration of the achilles tendon induces a postural illusion. When vibraton is applied to the tendon, which of the following occurs FIRST in the sequence of physiological processes that contribute to the illusion?
the tendon to lengthen
activation of the muscle spindles
muscles to lengthen
rotation of the ankle joint
perception of movement
7.Please answer the following short answer questions
How do alterations in vision and somatosensory information affect balance?
Consider the differences in anterior-posterior (X range) and medio-lateral (Y range) direction.
8. Please answer the following short answer questions using figure 1 on the next page
How do alterations in vestibular input affect balance control?
Explain why balance is worse for the head back, eyes closed, foam surface condition.