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6 Pages
###### CI 458 Inquiry Based Learning

Utilizing a Simulation Recently we’ve been launched into a new world of online learning. Teachers were forced to look at education differently while still providing high quality engaging activit ...

Course

CI 458

Type

Programming

Subject

Physics

University

4 Pages
###### CTEC 1401 the physics of geysers

Task: This lab is about understanding the physics of geysers! Define how a geyser works and what is required for a geyser to exists? What variables control a geyser such as duration, frequency and he ...

Type

Programming

Subject

Physics

University

University of Houston

20 Pages
###### Concept Of Center Of Gravity

Experiment 10: Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Purpose To use the principle of balanced torques to find the value of an unknown distance and to investigate the concept of center of gravity. Theory Firs ...

Course

PHYS0030

Subject

Physics

University

Brown University

Season

Fall

13 Pages
###### PHYS0050-Foundations of Mechanics

PHYSICS [DATE] 1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on Human Body It is one of the crucial radiology technique in medical science which works on the principal of Magnetism along with radio waves an ...

Course

PHYS0050

Subject

Physics

University

Brown University

Season

spring

### Questions:

Q1. A medical ultrasound system produces sound waves of frequency 2.5 MHz. Use the information in the table below to answer the following questions.

1. What are the wavelengths of the ultrasound waves in air, blood and bone?
2. What is the reflection coefficient for a sound waves incident on the interface between muscle and bone?
3. A layer of fat is sandwiched between two muscle layers so the reflections at each that the ultrasound produces interference. For a given layer thickness, standing waves are produced.
• Assuming that the standing wave pattern is of the closed-closed type, draw the patterns for the fundamental and fifth harmonics.
• For what layer thicknesses are standing waves achieved for the fundamental and fifth harmonics?
 Medium Density (kg/m3) Speed of Ultrasound (m/s) Air 1.3 330 Water 1000 1500 Blood 1060 1570 Fat 925 1450 Muscle (average) 1075 1590 Bone (average) 1650 4080

Q2. Optical fibers are used to transmit light over a flexible line and are used widely in applications such as in the data communications and keyhole surgery. Light of wavelength in vacuum 625 nm is incident on the fiber which has a core refractive index of ncore = 1.46.

1. What is speed of the light in the core?
2. What is the wavelength in the core?
3. What is the frequency of the light in (i) in air and (ii) in the core?
4. The fiber transmits 150 mW of the red light through it. How many photons per second is this?
1. If the critical angle for reflection at the core boundary is 75°, what is the refractive index of the cladding?

Q3. The following figure shows the location of an object with respect to a diverging lens.

1. Copy the diagram and show:
• (1 mark) the path of a parallel ray from the top of the object through the lens;
• (1 mark) the path of a ray through the centre of the lens;
• (2 marks) and use these rays to identify the location of the image.
2. Is the image real or virtual? State why.
3. (5 marks) Given that the object is 4.7 m from the lens, and the magnification is 0.25, calculate the focal length of the lens.
4. A person with myopia wears such lenses to correct for their vision of objects in the distance. The lenses are positioned 15 mm from the eyes. What is the far point for this person?

Q4. Red light is often chosen for some skin diagnostics as it transmits well through the top layers of the skin. In this question take the refractive index of skin as nskin = 1.36.

1. (i) Explain what the Brewster angle means for unpolarised incident light.

(ii) In words and a diagram, indicate the direction of the polarization of the light reflected.

1. What is the Brewster angle for the skin?
2. Laser Doppler velocimetry is a technique for measuring blood flow in small blood vessels. Consider the case for a laser at 620 nm and frequency f0. The frequency shifts are very small, but are detectable in practice using interferometric techniques. If a red blood cell in the body “sees” a frequency fbthat is shifted in frequency due to the Doppler effect by

fb  f0 = 25 kHz

Calculate the velocity of the blood cell (speed and direction) with respect to the laser. You can assume that the cell is moving in a direction parallel to the beam.

Q5. Boron-12 decays via electron decay (e-) with a half-life of 20.2 ms. An anti-neutrino  is also produced.

1. Complete the following reaction for this type of boron decay.

1. There are initially N0= 3 ×1015 atoms of boron-12 in a sample.
• How many are present after 0.55 s?
• What are the initial and final activities?

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Q

### CI 458 Inquiry Based Learning

Utilizing a Simulation Recently we’ve been launched into a new world of online learning. Teachers were forced to look at education differently while still providing high quality engaging activities. One method of providing these activities was to use online simulations. In this activity you wi ...

Q

### CTEC 1401 the physics of geysers

Task: This lab is about understanding the physics of geysers! Define how a geyser works and what is required for a geyser to exists? What variables control a geyser such as duration, frequency and height? What causes changes over time in a geyser? Where are geysers located? List the top three larg ...

Q

### Concept Of Center Of Gravity

Experiment 10: Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Purpose To use the principle of balanced torques to find the value of an unknown distance and to investigate the concept of center of gravity. Theory First condition of equilibrium An object doesn ’tmove. Therefore, the vector sum of all forces exerte ...

Q

### PHYS0050-Foundations of Mechanics

PHYSICS [DATE] 1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on Human Body It is one of the crucial radiology technique in medical science which works on the principal of Magnetism along with radio waves and acomputer so as to develop the detailed image of the tissue and organs of body. The concerned per ...

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