Learn smart - Learn online. Upto 88% off on courses for a limited time. View Courses
Error goes here
Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=rijh20 The International ...
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=rijh20 The International Journal of Human Resource
ISSN: 0958-5192 (Print) 1466-4399 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rijh20
Beyond strategic human resource management:
is sustainable human resource management the
To cite this article: Robin Kramar (2014) Beyond strategic human resource management: is
sustainable human resource management the next approach?, The International Journal of Human
Resource Management, 25:8, 1069-1089, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2013.816863
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.816863
Published online: 16 Jul 2013.Submit your article to this journal Article views: 32280View related articles View Crossmark dataCiting articles: 161 View citing articles
Beyond strategic human resource management: is sustainable human
resource management the next approach?
School of Business, Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia
Strategic human resource management (SHRM) emerged as a dominant approach to
human resource management (HRM) policy during the past 30 years. However, during
the last decade, a new approach to HRM has evolved. This approach has been labelled
sustainable human resource management (sustainable HRM). It is an approach that
seeks to link HRM and sustainability. The term sustainability is fraught with semantic
difﬁculties, as is conceptualising its relationship to HRM. Consequently, sustainable
HRM is viewed in a variety of ways. This paper examines the major features of SHRM,
some of the meanings given to sustainability and the relationship between
sustainability and HRM. It then outlines the major characteristics of sustainable
HRM. Although there are a diversity of views about sustainable HRM, this approach
has a number of features which differentiate it from SHRM. It acknowledges
organisational outcomes, which are broader than ﬁnancial outcomes. All the writings
emphasise the importance of human and social outcomes. In addition, it explicitly
identiﬁes the negative as well as the positive effects of HRM on a variety of
stakeholders; it pays further attention to the processes associated with the
implementation of HRM policies and acknowledges the tensions in reconciling
competing organisational requirements. Such an approach takes an explicit moral
position about the desired outcomes of organisational practices in the short term and the
long term. Sustainable HRM can be understood in terms of a number of complimentary
Keywords:approaches to HRM; links between sustainability and HRM; organisational
performance; strategic human resource management; sustainable HRM
The concept and processes of strategic human resource management (SHRM) developed
in the late 1970s and the 1980s as a way of managing employees in an increasingly
turbulent and fast-changing, uncertain environment. SHRM explicitly linked people
management policies and practices to the achievement of organisational outcomes and
performance, most particularly ﬁnancial and market outcomes. Although some SHRM
frameworks recognised the inﬂuence of employment policies on behaviours, productivity
and other employee outcomes, the value of these outcomes was reﬂected in their
contribution to organisational performance, rather than any value accruing to the
employees (Miles and Snow1984; Schuler and Jackson1987; Lundy and Cowling1996;
Lengnick-Hall, Lengnick-Hall, Andrade and Drake2009). A signiﬁcant body of research
was conducted on the link between human resource management (HRM) practices and
ﬁnancial outcomes (Huselid1995; Pfeffer1998). This research was complemented by
research on the mediating factors resulting from HRM practices which contributed to these
ﬁnancial outcomes (Richard and Johnson2001; Macky and Boxall2008).
A more recent approach to managing people has emerged. This approach explicitly
recognises the impact people management policies have on both human and ﬁnancial
q2013 Taylor & Francis
The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2014
Vol. 25, No. 8, 1069–1089,http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.816863
outcomes. Unlike the emphasis of the SHRM approach, this approach explicitly
recognises the legitimacy of organisational practices, particularly HRM practices, in
furthering a wider range of outcomes. These outcomes could include impacts on
individuals or groups within an organisation (human outcomes) and impacts on groups of
people and the relationships between people (social outcomes). This alternative approach
also includes writers (Avery2005; Dunphy, Grifﬁths and Benn2007) who explicitly
acknowledge the impact of HRM on ecological/environmental outcomes. In addition, this
approach explicitly acknowledges the shadow side of HRM, that is it acknowledges the
possibility of the negative impacts on human, social and ecological/environmental
outcomes. This more recent approach has been labelled sustainable human resource
management (sustainable HRM). The term sustainable HRM has been conceptualised in a
variety of ways. It has been referred to in different countries and HR-related literatures
(Wilkinson, Hill and Gollan2001; Mariappanadar2003,2012; Ehnert2006,2009; Clarke
2011). The literature on sustainable HRM has developed during the past decade and it
represents an attempt to grapple with the relationship between HRM practices and
outcomes beyond predominantly ﬁnancial outcomes.
This paper is concerned with exploring whether the sustainable HRM approach to
managing people in work organisations represents a new approach to managing people.
The ﬁrst part of the paper examines the concepts of and relationships between
sustainability, SHRM and HRM. The second part examines sustainable HRM as an
approach to managing people. The third part explores the issue of whether sustainable
HRM represents a new approach to managing people and draws out the features at the
heart of sustainable HRM. This is followed by a conclusion which draws out the possible
future development of sustainable HRM.
Concepts, deﬁnitions and relationships between sustainability, SHRM and HRM
There are considerable semantic difﬁculties associated with the deﬁnitions of terms
sustainability, SHRM and HRM. There are no deﬁnitive deﬁnitions and their meanings
vary according to the factors that frame their consideration. These factors include the
assumptions, theoretical frameworks, stakeholder interests, the time frame used and
the national and industry contexts in which the concepts are considered.
Sustainability is an imprecise term that has evolved since its application in the contexts of
the environment and population growth. Discussion about sustainability was fuelled by
the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations. The Brundtland Commission (the
Commission) took a broad view of sustainable development which was global, long term
and took into account a variety of stakeholders. It identiﬁed three pillars of sustainable
development. These pillars were economic, social and environmental. This approach
reﬂected not only the Commission’s concern for the degradation of the environment, but
also concern for the social impact and continued waste of HRs resulting from the
prevailing nature of economic growth and development (Brundtland1987).
As Ehnert and Harry (2012) highlight, the Brundtland view of sustainability provoked
interest in a range of concepts concerned with the responsibilities of business. These
concepts include corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social performance
(CSP). The essence of CSR is that organisations have not only economic and legal
responsibilities but also ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. The concept of CSPR. Kramar 1070
extends CSR by emphasising the organisations impact on the social sphere and assessing
performance in terms of the measurement of the organisations social goals (Carroll
2008). By their very nature when these concepts of responsibility are considered within
the context of work organisations, they require consideration of the impact of
organisational activities on a number of stakeholders. They also enable an assessment of
organisational outcomes, performance and impacts beyond just the ﬁnancial and
The Brundtland approach has been applied to organisations and businesses and can be
regarded as one way of understanding sustainability in the world of business. This
approach builds on the concept of the three pillars by proposing that three organisational
outcomes, ﬁnancial performance, social and ecological/environmental impacts, need to be
considered as dimensions of organisational performance (Elkington1997). This approach
focuses on both the external impacts of an organisation and the internal impacts. It also
views sustainability in terms of short- and longer-term impacts on a variety of
This stakeholder approach to sustainability is informed by an open-systems
framework which recognises the interconnection and interaction of stakeholders,
organisational systems and sub-systems, social systems and the environment in which
these systems operate (Benn and Bolton2011, p. 218). Accordingly, in order to take
actions to further sustainability, members of organisations are required to engage a variety
of stakeholders who will have different perspectives and values. Engagement in this
process therefore requires an acceptance of ambiguity, uncertainty and the development
of the skills required to understand different perspectives or mental models (Kramar
An alternative way of understanding sustainability is to frame it in terms of businesses
operating in a neoliberal form of capitalism, rather than acknowledging the need to take
into account a range of stakeholder interests. When this approach is taken, sustainability
gives precedence to one stakeholder, the owners, usually the shareholders of business
organisations. Friedman (1970) is well-known for promoting this approach to
sustainability. He argues that managers and executives are agents of the principals of
the organisation and are therefore primarily responsible to them. When this principle is
applied to business organisations, particularly corporations, he claims
In a free-enterprise, private property system, a corporate executive is an employee of the
owners of the business.... Direct responsibility to his employers. That responsibility is to
conduct the business in accordance with their desires, which will generally be to make as
much money as possible while conforming to the rules of society. (Friedman 1970, p. 32)
This view is explicitly based on the assumption that market mechanisms are the
appropriate way to determine the allocation of scarce resources. Clearly then, managers
and executives are not responsible to other stakeholders or for outcomes beyond those of
the short- and long-term ﬁnancial outcomes which beneﬁt the ‘owners’ of the organisation.
Therefore, some actions which are framed in terms of social responsibility actions, such as
investment in amenities in communities or allowing employees to undertake volunteering
activities, are in effect designed to further ﬁnancial/economic outcomes. These actions are
therefore undertaken to further the sustainability of the organisation and to ultimately
beneﬁt the owners of the organisation. This approach to sustainability, however, neglects
the short- and long-term negative impacts on a variety of stakeholders. These stakeholders
include employees, members of society, future generations and natural/ecological
resources (Dunphy et al.2007). The essence of this form of sustainability is on
organisational survival and longevity.The International Journal of Human Resource Management1071
This paper is concerned with examining the literature on sustainable HRM to
determine if this body of literature constitutes a new approach to HRM. As discussed
above, this literature could use different interpretations of sustainability. The identiﬁcation
of three interpretations of sustainability by Ehnert (2009, pp. 62 – 67) provides a useful
way of understanding the relationship between sustainability and HRM. These
interpretations are responsibility-oriented, an efﬁciency- and innovation-oriented, and a
substance-oriented understanding of the relationship between sustainability and HRM.
The responsibility-oriented approach is based on an open-systems model which
informs the ﬁrst approach to sustainability and which underpins the Brundtland deﬁnition
of sustainable development. Central to this view is that responsibility to a variety of
different stakeholders is undertaken for its own sake, not because it furthers the economic
interests of one stakeholder, that is the owners of the organisation. According to this
approach performance of the organisation would be measured in terms of a variety of
metrics including employee well-being, community well-being and quality of life.
The efﬁciency- and innovation-oriented approach adopts a view which is more
consistent with Friedman’s approach to sustainability and CSR by developing the
interrelationships between economic outcomes and sustainability outcomes. Ehnert (2009)
captures the essence of this approach when she claims that the objective of the efﬁciency-
and innovation-oriented understanding is to reduce consumption (and costs) or to increase
the efﬁciency of resource exploitation (and value creation) via innovation. Although this
approach is framed in terms of a ‘win-win’ for a number of stakeholders, it is still based on
the concept of efﬁciency, consistent with Friedman’s view of sustainability.
A very different approach is taken in the substance-oriented meaning of sustainability.
This approach seeks to maintain organisational and particularly the HRs of an
organisation, so that consumption and reproduction of resources enable the organisation to
survive in the future. Once again, this approach is framed in terms of the open-systems
framework. Organisations are therefore required to acknowledge the importance of the
value and quality of people within the organisation. Institutions external to the
organisation, such as education and training institutions, also inﬂuence the availability of
the quantity and quality of people available to the organisation.
The term sustainability has been interpreted in various ways. This paper seeks to
identify whether a body of literature that can be clustered within a broad group labelled
sustainable HRM is a coherent alternative to SHRM.
HRM and SHRM
There are also particular semantic difﬁculties associated with the terms HRM and SHRM.
HRM is a broad term that refers to the activities associated with the management of the
people who do the work of organisations. This view of HRM extends the deﬁnition of
Boxall and Purcell (2008). Boxall and Purcell deﬁne HRM in terms of activities associated
with managing employees. However, increasingly work is being done by people who are
engaged to do the work of organisations on contracts other than the employment contracts
(Australian Council of Trade Unions2012). The nature of HRM is broadened by
recognising that HRM is associated with more than just managing employees, but also
involves managing people, such as sub-contractors, consultants and people on non-
employment contract, as well as also possibly managing other organisations in the
production of goods and services (for instance, telecommunications organisations). HRM
encompasses SHRM (Schuler and Jackson2005; Boxall and Purcell2008), which is a
more speciﬁc approach to managing people. SHRM is an approach to management whichR. Kramar 1072
encompasses those HR strategies designed to improve organisational performance and
measures the impact of these strategies on organisational performance (Boxall, Purcell
and Wright 2007). A very popular deﬁnition of SHRM is expressed in terms of a series of
planned human resource activities and deployments designed to achieve an organisation’s
goals (Wright and McMahan 1992, pp. 295 – 320). SHRM therefore assumes that HRM
activities need to be integrated with organisational strategic objectives and organisational
context. It also assumes that effective HRM activities improve organisational performance
(Schuler and Jackson2005) and that HRM activities reinforce each other, that is they are
aligned (Jackson and Seo2010).
The concept of SHRM is not static, but has evolved in a number of ways. These
include the development of theoretical frameworks informing SHRM, views about the
speciﬁc contributions it could make to organisational performance and the speciﬁc
‘bundles’ of HR practices which make a strategic contribution. These bundles include
high performance work systems (HPWS) which consist of practices consistent with
each other, such as selective recruitment and selections, extensive employee
development and participation in decision-making (Arthur1994; Huselid1995;
MacDufﬁe1995; Pfeffer1998; Combs, Liu, Hall and Ketchen2006; Macky and Boxall
2008). In addition, attention has been paid to the scope of SHRM, issues associated
with execution and implementation, the measures of the outcomes of SHRM and the
development of international HRM (Schuler and Jackson2005; Lengnick-Hall et al.
However, despite this evolution, the central concern of SHRM has been the
contribution of HRM to organisational performance by demonstrating a positive
relationship between HR policies and ﬁnancial organisational outcomes (Frombrun, Tichy
and Devanna1984; Wright and Snell1991; Nikandrou and Papalexandris2007). This
reﬂects an approach which is consistent with Friedman’s view of organisational
responsibilities to the owners of the organisation, rather than to other stakeholders.
HRM contributes to organisational performance by developing many positive
mediating factors including improving productivity, positive social outcomes and reduced
turnover (Arthur1994; Huselid1995; Patterson, West, Lawthorn and Nickell1997;
Richard and Johnson2001; Collins and Clark2003; Peterson2004; Evans and Davis2005;
Brammer, Millington and Rayton2007; Boxall and Macky2009). These positive
mediating outcomes contribute to greater cost efﬁciencies through increased productivity,
reduced turnover, better and lower recruitment and training costs (Bachaus, Stone and
Heiner2002; Peterson2004). Therefore, performing well on these social and human
indicators represents a form of strategic investment that has a positive impact on ﬁnancial
outcomes (Daily and Su2001). The SHRM approach, however, is fraught with difﬁculties,
including failing to take into account a variety of stakeholder requirements, the reality of
HRM inconsistencies within organisations, the ambiguities, paradoxes and dilemmas of
HRM practice and inadequate account of external inﬂuences. In the main, the SHRM
literature fails to adequately address the inﬂuence of different stakeholder perceptions and
national contexts. The short- and long-term ﬁnancial outcomes are given precedence and
reﬂect shareholder interests. This has been reﬂected in research which emphasises the
relationship between ﬁnancial, competitive performance and HRM practices (Huselid
1995; Pfeffer1998) and the recurring claims that HRM practices must be able to
demonstrate their contribution to business outcomes and organisational value (Ulrich
1997; Ulrich and Brockbank2005).
The SHRM literature also fails to adequately address the inconsistency of HRM
practice within an organisation. In recent years, research concerned with theThe International Journal of Human Resource Management1073
implementation of HRM policy indicates a number of factors limit the implementation of
HRM policy. These factors include the importance of CEOs, middle and line managers in
promoting the implementation of HRM policy throughout organisational hierarchies
(Mayrhofer, Muller-Caman, Ledolter, Strunk and Erten2004; Bartram, Stanton, Leggat,
Casimir and Fraser2007; Purcell and Hutchinson2007; Stanton, Young, Bartram and
Nor does SHRM or HRM acknowledge the complexities such as the ambiguities,
paradoxes, dualities and dilemmas associated with HRM practice (Hampden-Turner
and Trompenaars2000). It is not a matter of organisations choosing either one set
of practices or another set of practices as in the case of contingency theory. Rather,
‘layering’ of policies occurs in response to the tensions arising from the movement
between the dualities and the dilemmas associated with implementation (Hampden-
Turner1990; Evans1999, p. 328). For instance, HR managers are in an ambiguous
position when they have to demonstrate that they are contributing to the ﬁnancial
outcomes and ‘adding value’ to the organisation, by reducing labour costs, yet at the
same time contributing to the well-being of employees through Work – life balance
Most of the SHRM literature also fails to adequately take into account the direct
inﬂuence of external factors on HRM practices and policies. The early formulation of an
HRM model by Beer, Spector, Lawrence, Quinn Mills and Walton (1984) did
acknowledge the role of the state and trade unions as an inﬂuence on HRM; however, the
inﬂuence of the state was not adequately developed. Its complex inﬂuence in terms of law,
public sector employer, economic, social and environmental policy and organisational
operation and outcomes are, in the main, neglected (Matinez Lucio and Stuart2011).
Institutional analysis claims that institutions and social structures within a particular
national context shape the actions and choices made by organisations and individuals
(DiMaggio and Powell1983).
There is an emerging interest in the future of SHRM and whether it can contribute to
organisations achieving environmental sustainability. To date ‘scholarship focused at the
intersection of strategic HRM and environmental sustainability has yet to reveal itself’
(Jackson and Seo2010, p. 279). The few writers (Ehnert2006,2009; Dunphy et al.2007;
Jackson and Seo2010) that have written speciﬁcally about this intersection indicate that
SHRM could move in new directions.
Three of these directions include examining process, taking into account various
stakeholder interests and identifying the capabilities required to manage the negative
ecological outcomes of managerial decision-making. The ﬁrst direction concerns the
importance of focussing on the process of HRM, rather than just the content of HRM
policies. This approach is based on the assumption that an organisation is organic, and
change occurs in an iterative way, and not necessarily in a planned way. As discussed
previously, central to SHRM is the contribution of HRM practices to economic measures
of performance, thus neglecting the interests of other stakeholders and environmental
impacts. Therefore, a second direction involves adopting a broader focus to measuring
organisational performance and the need to take into account a variety of stakeholder
interests. Such a process could involve accommodating competing interests and
contradictions. This process requires particular skills such as negotiation, persuasion and
the ability to be empathic and use dialogue (Gao and Zhang2006). Third, in addition to the
capabilities required to manage varying stakeholder interests, there are also capabilities
which are required to contribute to environmental sustainability. These include systems
thinking, teamwork, critical thinking, reﬂection, collaboration, individual self-knowledgeR. Kramar 1074
and awareness of values (Dunphy et al.2007; Taylor2007; Kramar2009; Jackson,
Renwick, Jabbour and Muller-Camen 2011).
This interest in the intersection between SHRM and sustainability and the proposed
directions for future development of SHRM, challenge some of the basic premises and
frameworks underpinning SHRM. The ﬁrst fundamental premise is that HRM choices are
made because of their contribution to business or organisational outcomes, even when
concerns are expressed about whether HRM practices cause organisational performance
results (Patterson et al.1997; Legge2005). The second premise challenges the supremacy
of the interests of one stakeholder, the owners of the organisation, and requires
consideration of the impact on other stakeholders. The following discussion examines the
literature on sustainable HRM. The discussion will draw attention to whether this literature
challenges these two aspects of SHRM.
The term sustainable HRM has been used for more than a decade. The literature is
piecemeal, diverse and fraught with difﬁculties. There is no one precise deﬁnition of the
term and it has been used in a variety of ways. The writings on sustainable HRM differ in
terms of the emphasis given to particular internal and external outcomes. It has been used
to refer to social and human outcomes which contribute to the continuation of the
organisation in the long term, that is to a sustainable organisation. It has also been used to
refer to HRM activities which enhance positive environmental outcomes Green HRM
(GHRM), and positive social and human outcomes for their own sake, rather than just as
mediating factors between ﬁnancial outcomes and strategy. As with the terms HRM,
SHRM and sustainability, there are deﬁnitional issues with the term sustainable HRM.
A number of terms have been used to link sustainability and HRM activities. These
include sustainable work systems (SWSs; Docherty, Forslin, Shani and Kira2002), HR
sustainability (Gollan2000; Wirtenberg, Harmon, Russell and Fairﬁeld2007), sustainable
management of HRs (Ehnert2006,2009,2011), sustainable leadership (Avery2005;
Avery and Bergsteiner2010) and sustainable HRM (Marriappanadar2003;2012). In
addition, the term sustainable organisation (Dunphy et al.2007) has been used. Although
these terms differ in the extent to which they attempt to reconcile the goals of economic
competitiveness, positive human/social outcomes and ecological outcomes, they are all
concerned with acknowledging either explicitly or implicitly human and social outcomes
of the organisation. They all recognise the impact HR outcomes have on the survival and
success of the organisation. All of the above terms are subsumed in this paper under the
broad term of sustainable HRM. In addition, some of the research which explore
the relationship between HRM and broad economic, social and ecological/environmental
outcomes, but does not include ‘sustainable’ as a term, particularly GHRM, will be
considered within the examination of sustainable HRM.
Unlike SHRM, which proposes HRM practices should be designed to further
organisational strategy and economic outcomes, a common feature of the writings on
sustainable HRM is that HRM practices contribute to the development of human and
social capital within the organisation. In addition, some of these writings (Mariappanadar
2003,2012; Dunphy et al.2007; Avery and Bergsteiner2010) also acknowledge that there
is a growing concern about the impact of HRM policies on externalities, such as the
environment and social and human aspects of society. Some of this literature also (Jackson
et al. 2011) acknowledged that HRM practices will inﬂuence the extent to which people
are attracted to work for an organisation or to purchase its products and services.The International Journal of Human Resource Management1075
The literature on sustainable HRM can be categorised into three groups. A common
feature of all of these groups is an understanding that sustainability refers to long-term and
durable outcomes. However, the writersin these various categories understand
sustainability and its relationship to HRM in different ways. The groups are categorised
in terms of their outcomes. One group emphasises economic outcomes and the creation of
‘sustainable competitive advantage’. This group, known as ‘Capability Reproduction’,
focuses on the internal impacts of HRM policies (Wilkinson et al.2001; Ehnert2009; Clarke
2011). Another group, titled ‘Promoting Social and Environmental Health’, emphasises
external outcomes, such as broader performance outcomes including ecological/
environmental and/or social and human outcomes (Mariappanadar2003; Orlitzky, Schmidt
and Rynes 2003; Collinson, Cobb, Power and Stevenson2007). A third group, labelled
‘Connections’, moves beyond just HRM practices and examines the interrelationships
between management practices, including HRM and organisational outcomes, which
include environmental and social outcomes. This includes the literature on sustainable
leadership (Avery2005). This literature acknowledges the inﬂuence of national contexts on
management practices while the literature on sustainable organisation explores the
relationship between HRM policies and environmental sustainability (Dunphy et al.2007)
and is concerned with the explicit connections between a variety of internal and external
outcomes and HRM practices. These groups are not mutually exclusive. However, these
three categories provide a simple means of drawing out the major distinctions between the
writings on sustainable HRM. These three groups are discussed in the following section.
There is a substantial body of literature (see, for instance, Ehnert2009;Clarke2011;
Browning and Delahaye 2011; Wells2011) which links HRM practices to internal outcomes,
particularly economic outcomes. As discussed in the previous section, research using the
SHRM framework demonstrates that HRM practices contribute to ﬁnancial outcomes
through mediating factors that represent human outcomes. These outcomes include job
satisfaction, engagement and positive psychological contract. Unlike the SHRM literature,
sustainable HRM writers who emphasise economic outcomes explicitly identify two
performance outcomes for the organisation: economic and social/human. These writers are
particularly concerned with fostering economic outcomes and organisational sustainability in
the longer term through HRM practices which contribute to positive human/social outcomes.
According to these writers, the concept of sustainable HRM represents a new, holistic
approach to people management and it represents an extension of SHRM. This approach
argues that particular HRM practices are essential for the development of the human
capabilities required to operate in an environment facing environmental, demographic and
social pressures (Wilkinson et al.2001; Ehnert2009; Clarke2011).
Ehnert (2009, p. 74) provides a deﬁnition of sustainable HRM which recognises the
presence of ambiguity and duality. She states,
Sustainable HRM is the pattern of planned or emerging human resource strategies and
practices intended to enable a organizational goal achievement while simultaneously
reproducing the HR base over a long-lasting calendar time and controlling for self induced
side and feedback effects on the HR systems on the HR base and thus on the company itself.
(Ehnert2009, p. 74)
According to Ehnert, ‘the main objectives of sustainable HRM are (1) to balance the
ambiguities and duality of efﬁciency and sustainability over a long-lasting calendar
year; (2) to sustain, develop and reproduce an organisation’s human and social resourceR. Kramar 1076
base, e.g. help the mutual exchange relationships; and (3) to evaluate and assess negative
effects of HR activities on the HR base and on the sources for HR’ (Ehnert2006,p.14).
This deﬁnition extends the previous deﬁnitions which focus primarily on outcomes, by
also acknowledging the processes involved in sustainable HRM.
According to this deﬁnition, sustainable HR assumes that an organisation is an open
system that needs to develop and regenerate its HRs at least as fast as it ‘consumes’ them.
Dualities and dilemmas for HR practitioners are recognised in sustainable management of
HR. HR practitioners are faced with the need to further efﬁciency and at the same time
invest in the development of human capability. Managers in organisations also need to
acknowledge the interrelationship between the environment and organisational resources
(Muller-Christ2001cited in Ehnert2006).
A wide variety of HRM practices have been found to contribute to these positive
internal and external outcomes. These include HRM practices such as collaborative HR
development (Browning and Delahaye 2011), organisational structures which facilitate
employee participation and direct communication with employees (Donnelly and Proctor-
Thomson2011), work roles and performance evaluation which focus on building on
employee strengths and facilitating performance (Wells2011).
Some of the literature in this category appears to resemble HRM packages such as
HPWS or high performance work practices (HPWP), rather than a new approach to people
management. However, the difference between these earlier models of HRM and
sustainable HRM is the explicit focus on long-term social/human outcomes by the
sustainable HRM writers. For instance, Wilkinson et al. (2001) argue that HR
sustainability requires a ‘shift in focus from short term corporate survival to long-term
business success’ and a focus on positive employee outcomes (pp. 1498 – 1499).
Writers (Docherty et al.2002; Docherty, Kira and Shani2009; Kira2002) on SWSs also
focus on human/social outcomes. They seek to have negative human/social outcomes
identiﬁed at the individual, organisational and societal level and to develop SWS which
result in the renewal and development of the organisation’s human and social capital
(Ehnert2006). They acknowledge the detrimental impact of HR developments such as work
intensiﬁcation, temporary employment, excessive performance standards and ambiguous
job roles on individual well-being, organisational culture and family and community health
and satisfaction. A central interest of this group is the development of HRM practices that
result in positive human/social outcomes such as work – life balance, as well as
organisational economic outcomes and sustainable change processes (Docherty et al.2002;
Ehnert2006). These writers demonstrate characteristics of both the ﬁrst group and the
second group of writers. However, they are not concerned with ecological outcomes.
Most aspects of this approach have been captured in a model described by Ehnert (2009,
p. 172). The model is based on an open-systems framework. The model does not adequately
capture the negative external and internal consequences of HRM practice. However, these
consequences could be added to the model. The model also fails to capture the difference
between policy and the practice resulting from implementation and the dualities, complexities
and ambiguities in HRM policy and practice. Although the model identiﬁes the socio-economic
context of organisations, it does not adequately identify the inﬂuences of these contexts,
nor do they demonstrate how strategy could be inﬂuenced by an organisation’s actions.
‘Promoting social and environmental health’
The second group of writers (such as Mariappanadar2003,2012; Orlitzky et al. 2003;
Branco and Rodrigues2006; Collinson et al.2007) on sustainable HRM identiﬁes the The International Journal of Human Resource Management1077
relationship between HRM and external outcomes which are typically representative of
CSR and the triple bottom line (economic, social and environmental outcomes). It is
noteworthy that much of this literature identiﬁes the way in which social/human outcomes
and/or environmental outcomes contribute to economic and ﬁnancial outcomes.
Therefore, many of these writers reﬂect the efﬁciency-oriented approach to sustainability.
The term sustainable management of HR has been used to refer to HRM practices
which contribute to both positive ecological/environmental and human/social outcomes,
with the intended purpose of achieving economic results (Ehnert2006). This represents a
concern with achieving internal and external outcomes. It has been found that companies
which display good social/human and ecological/environmental practices have a positive
impact on a business’s ﬁnancial performance (Orlitzky et al.2003; Branco and Rodrigues
2006). In addition, companies involved in ethical investments have been shown to have
better ﬁnancial performance than other companies (Collinson et al.2007), while markets
reward companies that are environmentally responsive (Schnietz and Epstein2005;
Wahba2007). Performing well on social/human and environmental indicators represents a
form of strategic investment and is a means of satisfying a variety of stakeholder
This emphasis on economic outcomesfrom social/human and ecological/
environmental outcomes is reﬂected in the focus of research and the practitioner
understanding of the term sustainability. Walsh, Weber and Margolis (2003) demonstrated
that of the 121 papers which empirically examined the relationship between CSR
outcomes and corporate ﬁnancial performance, 100 of these ‘attach CSR to an economic
rationale’ (p. 868). This is supported by research on the understanding by HR professionals
on ‘sustainability in HRM’ in eight European countries. This research demonstrated that in
all countries except Switzerland, the economic outcomes were given primacy (Zaugg,
Blum and Thom2001).
Other writers (Mariappanadar2003,2012) within this broad groups focus on the impact
of HRM on externalities, particularly social and human externalities. These outcomes
include family and community well-being, employee health, government policy and
expenditure. These writers are primarily concerned with negative externalities. Negative
externalities refers to ‘something that costs the organization nothing for their actions or
business practices, but those actions or business practices are costly to third parties’
(Mariappanadar 2012, p. 5). While this acknowledges the impact of HRM practices on
external parties, it does not deal with the inﬂuence of external factors on HRM.
These writers raise the importance of HRM policies on outcomes other than social/
human outcomes. In most cases, these are ecological outcomes. Most writers, however,
fail to adequately address the inﬂuence of broader macroeconomic factors and they view
non-ﬁnancial outcomes as mediating factors for ﬁnancial outcomes.
This group examines the interrelationships between management practices, including HRM
and organisational outcomes. These outcomes include environmental, social and ﬁnancial
outcomes. Implicit in these writings is a moral concern with organisations behaving
responsibly. The literature on sustainable leadership acknowledges the inﬂuence of national
contexts on management practices (Avery2005; Avery and Bergsteiner2010), while the
literature on change for sustainability and sustainable organisations (Dunphy et al.2007)
and the GHRM literature (Renwick, Redman and Maguire2011) recognises the R. Kramar 1078
interrelationships between environmental practices and HRM and other management
It has been argued that environmental and human/social outcomes are interrelated and
contribute to organisational sustainability. The development and implementation of
advanced environmental policies and capabilities are dependent on the creation of HRM
policies that create trust between employees, management and the communities in which
the organisation operates. Dunphy et al. (2007) propose that in order for organisations to
provide positive ecological/environmental outcomes, they also need to manage their staff
in particular ways. They propose a six-stage model which represents various stages of
human and ecological/environmental sustainability. These stages are rejection, non-
responsiveness, compliance, efﬁciency,strategic proactivity and the sustaining
organisation. According to these writers, a sustaining organisation is one ‘which fully
incorporates the tenets of human and ecological sustainability into its own operations’ and
also works to support the application of sustainability more widely (Dunphy et al. 2007,
p. 62). Such an organisation has strong corporate values and senior executive support.
It has a ﬂexible structure and HRM practices which build the capabilities of the workforce,
provide for participative decision-making, diversity management, high levels of
workplace health and safety and performance indicators that reﬂect ethical concerns.
For instance, companies such as Fuji Xerox Australia, Interface and Ikea apply HRM
practices to enhance positive social and ecological outcomes. Fuji Xerox is committed to
minimising its manufacturing processes on the environment by remanufacturing and it has
used HPWS as a means of building a social system in the workplace, which supports this
outcome. Interface seeks to completely eliminate any negative impact the company has on
the environment by 2020 through actions developed within a framework, known as ‘fronts
of sustainability’. An essential component of this framework is the ‘sensitising
stakeholders’ which aims to create a culture that improves the livelihoods and lives of a
variety of stakeholders, including employees. This culture is built on knowledge about
sustainability and its impact on stakeholders. Ikea also seeks to integrate ecological and
social sustainability into all its operations. It aims to develop a sustainable workforce with
appropriate attitudes. These are developed using a focused recruitment strategy,
improving working conditions, providing paid maternity/paternity leave, strengthening
health and safety practices, undertaking sustainability training and improving
communications (Benn, Dunphy and Perrott2011).
Similarly, GHRM literature draws out the relationships between environmental
management and HRM (Jabbour and Santos2008). It seeks to expand SHRM so it includes
sustainability issues (Osland and Osland2007; Kramar2012) and address the role of HRM
on environmental outcomes such as pollution prevention (Bunge, Cohen-Rosenthal and
Ruiz-Quintanilla1996; Jackson et al.2011; Renwick et al.2011). A variety of HRM
policies associated with attracting and selecting, training and development, performance
managing, pay and reward systems, and especially employee involvement, and
empowerment and engagement have been found to create cultures, climates and
capabilities required for positive environmental outcomes (Renwick et al.2011).
As mentioned previously, there are some writers who explicitly recognise the
impact of the national context on the approach to sustainable HRM. This was
demonstrated in a comprehensive study (Zaugg et al.2001) in eight European countries
(Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Austria, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Switzerland)
and in the sustainable leadership literature (Avery2005; Avery and Bergsteiner2010).
In the ﬁrst study, it was found in all countries except Switzerland, ‘sustainability in
HRM’ was associated with an economic goal orientation. This approach was derivedThe International Journal of Human Resource Management1079
from the view that HR outcomes contributed to ﬁnancial outcomes and the
According to this research, organisations in Switzerland regard sustainable HRM as
part of the ‘Swiss tradition of harmonious co-existence of employees, corporations and
society’ (Ehnert2006, p. 8). Employees are regarded as equal partners with management,
and are assumed to participate in decisions and take responsibility for their careers. HRM
practices improve the long-term development of employees so they are useful to their
families and the community. Three practices are regarded as particularly signiﬁcant:
employee development, reward systems and the integration of sustainability into company
strategies, goals and culture (Thom 2002 in Ehnert2006).
According to Avery and Bergsteiner (2010), sustainable leadership ‘refers to achieving
futures in which humans live within their ecological and social means, without exploiting
other parties’ (p. 30). They (Avery2005; Avery and Bergsteiner2010) argue that this
approach is dominate in European countries which adopt the Rhineland approach to
economic theory, and although it is inﬂuenced by the national institutional and social
contexts, it is an approach to managing people and a ‘leadership’ philosophy which can be
adopted in a variety of national contexts.
Sustainable HRM: a new approach?
Does the sustainable HRM literature represent a new approach to the management of
The above discussion indicates that some of the current literature under the umbrella of
sustainable HRM does provide a viable alternative way of conceptualising HRM and the
processes and outcomes of managing people. Although the diverse sustainable HRM
literature does not represent a coherent body of literature, the focus of the three groups of
sustainable HRM writers is on the development of human capital as an essential outcome
of HRM processes. The literature does challenge the premise that the primary purpose of
HRM is the achievement of business outcomes. In addition, a dominant concern involves
the longer-term survival of the organisation and the HRM processes and outcomes that can
contribute to this survival. Even the GHRM literature recognises the importance of the
interrelationships between environmental and human outcomes, and organisational
sustainability and performance (Renwick et al.2011, p. 11).
The sustainable HRM literature does highlight a number of issues which differentiate
sustainable HRM from SHRM. The literature encompassed by sustainable HRM
represents a tantalising area for development. Sustainable HRM does not preclude aspects
of SHRM or personnel management (PM). Just as the SHRM includes the operational
activities of PM, so sustainable HRM can include aspects of SHRM and PM. However, for
it to represent a signiﬁcantly different approach to people management it would require a
substantially different orientation to SHRM. Other literature does this by challenging the
supremacy of one stakeholder’s interests (the owners of the organisation) and moving
beyond the focus on business outcomes. Some of the literature identiﬁes a variety of
effects on internal and external stakeholders.
In addition, some of the issues raised by the sustainable HRM literature include
theoretical, moral, practice, outcomes and process issues. These issues are interdependent.
Central to all of these issues is a clear focus on the purpose of the HRM practices. In
SHRM, the clear focus is furthering organisational performance, primarily in terms of
economic outcomes. A focus for the sustainable HRM literature would be furthering a
variety of outcomes, not just economic outcomes, for their own sake (Kramar2012). These R. Kramar 1080
outcomes would include a range of social and ecological outcomes. Such a focus
recognises the interconnectedness of the many aspects of the organisation, the people in
the organisation and the external environment.
The sustainable HRM literature raises theoretical issues associated with features of
HRM. These features include the dynamic nature of HRM and its outcomes, the
interconnectedness of external, internal and individual people aspects of organisations and
a requirement to consider outcomes in terms of not just organisational economic
outcomes, but in terms of economic, social and ecological outcomes for a variety of
stakeholders. An open-systems framework as elaborated inFigure 1provides a framework
that can be used as a model for framing sustainable HRM.
This model builds on Ehnert’s model (2009, p. 172). It takes into account the literature
on negative externalities (Mariappanadar2003,2012) and SWSs (Kira2002) and
highlights the importance of making explicit the moral position underpinning a sustainable
HRM framework. It recognises that some stakeholders will lose as a result of HRM
policies. They will lose in the short term (e.g. employees losing their jobs or being
overworked) and in the long term (e.g. governments needing to provide for these
employees). Therefore, the model acknowledges HRM processes will have negative and
positive outcomes on different stakeholders. It also acknowledges the inﬂuence of the
institutional contexts of an organisation. The economic, social, regulatory and
technological contexts are inﬂuenced and inﬂuence the development of strategy and
AsFigure 1reveals, the outcomes of sustainable HRM can be measured by evaluating
organisational, social, individual and ecological outcomes. Measures would need to
evaluate outcomes such as the quality of the employment relationship, the health and well-
being of the workforce, productivity (organisational); the quality of relationships at work,
Figure 1. Sustainable HRM model.
Source: Adapted and extended from Ehnert (2009, p. 172).
The International Journal of Human Resource Management1081
organisation being an employer of choice and being recognised among a range of potential
sources of labour (social); and job satisfaction, employee motivation and work – life
balance (individual); use of resources, such as energy, paper, water use, production of
green products and services and costs associated with work travel (ecological). The
appropriate measures would need to be developed for an individual organisation and then
cascaded down to all employees using HRM practices, such as role design, performance
indicators and rewards.
Some of the writers on sustainable HRM raise issues for the practice of HRM. These
issues focus on the capabilities, the complexity and ambiguities associated with HRM
execution and implementation and the role of HR professionals. The speciﬁc capabilities
identiﬁed are those required to operate in the current and future environment (Wilkinson
et al.2001; Enhert2006,2009; Clarke2011) and particularly in an increasingly fragile
ecological environment (Renwick et al.2011).
Processes of HRM have been framed within the SHRM literature predominantly
within a rational view of organisations. The exception is Colbert (2004) who applies a
complexity lens to the resource-based view. Although there is no explicit discussion
within the sustainable HRM literature about the role of an emergent iterative approach to
HRM process, this would appear to be an important process for enabling an exploration of
the competing outcomes desired by various stakeholders (Kramar2012). This literature
provides a key to differentiating sustainable HRM from SHRM.
Paradoxes can be represented as two or more contradictions which operate
simultaneously. Ehnert (2009) developed a paradox framework for sustainable HRM
which illustrates the key tensions between the efﬁcient use of people and maintaining the
human capabilities, the tensions between efﬁciency and substance rationality and
relational rationality, and developments over time. This is a very useful framework;
however, it is unable to deal with the issue of execution and implementation. This
framework is represented inFigure 2.
Figure 2. Paradox framework for sustainable HRM.
Source: Ehnert (2009, p. 175).
R. Kramar 1082
Writers (Kramar1992; Bowen and Ostroff2004; Becker and Huselid2006; Khili and
Wang2006; Purcell and Hutchinson2007; Teo and Rodwell2007; Stanton et al.2010)
using an SHRM approach have paid attention to the issue of execution and implementation
of HRM policies. These studies are useful in identifying the reasons for inconsistent
understandings of HRM within an organisation, the failure to implement formal policy and
the experience of HRM practices.
CEOs, middle and line managers play an essential role in implementation (Mayrhofer
et al.2004; Purcell and Hutchinson2007). The CEO provides legitimacy to HRM policies,
commits resources and inﬂuences within-group agreement within the organisational
hierarchy (Bowen and Ostroff 2004; Bartram et al.2007; Stanton et al.2010). Middle and
line managers are essential for the implementation of HRM policies and plans (Purcell and
Hutchinson2007; Teo and Rodwell2007). These managers are critical for developing
employee commitment and they need to behave in ways that are consistent and
reciprocated by employees.
Implementation of HRM policies can be enhanced with CEO support and the receipt of
consistent messages by line and middle managers and employees. These messages should
indicate desired employee behaviour, the link between HRM and performance and the
relevance of the policies. At the same time, the HR policies need to be perceived as fair
and be understood. In addition, there needs to be a perception of agreement among
principal decision-makers and legitimacy of authority (Bowen and Ostroff 2004; Bartram
et al.2007; Stanton et al.2010). Other factors contributing to effective implementation
include the use of cultural and structural changes in developing effective HRM systems,
employee involvement, family – friendly policies and making HRM departments
accessible (Khilji and Wang2006). The implementation of HRM is not a neutral process
but involves political aspects (Kramar1992; Bartram et al.2007; Sheehan, Cooper,
Holland and De Cieri2007), social, cultural and power factors (Kramar1992). The
practice of HRM cannot be explained by rational choice because people involved in
developing and implementing HR policies operate in a context of conﬂicting pressures.
In order to understand the actual practice of HRM, the factors inﬂuencing
implementation need to be explicitly represented in a model.Figure 3provides a
preliminary attempt to represent these inﬂuences. This ﬁgure provides additional detail
about the translation of policies into practices. This ﬁgure can be used in conjunction with
Figures 1 and 2to understand the purpose and processes embodied in sustainable HRM.
The sustainable HRM literature highlights some signiﬁcant aspects of organisational
outcomes which challenge the SHRM view of outcomes. Human outcomes, either for the
purpose of organisational survival or for their own sake, are a consistent theme of this
literature. In addition, some of the literature explicitly raises the importance of HRM
practices for ecological outcomes. The identiﬁcation of these outcomes has implications
for the metrics and indicators of HRM performance. As mentioned previously, the
identiﬁcation and therefore the measurement of negative outcomes, not just positive
outcomes, would be an important component of sustainable HRM. In addition, these
outcomes would include outcomes, within the organisation and outside the organisation.
This is done inFigure 1.
SHRM developed in a dynamic turbulent context in which institutions such as trade
unions were being challenged and the nature of work was changing with the creation of
more part-time and service work. The globalisation of business fuelled competition
between organisations and this fostered increasing concern on building shareholder value.
It was argued that HRM practices could create this value and deliver results to the business
through people (Ulrich1997; Ulrich and Brockbank2005). This emphasis on the The International Journal of Human Resource Management1083
interrelationship between HRM and ﬁnancial organisational performance is at the heart of
SHRM. It is not at the heart of sustainable HRM.
Ehnert’s (2009) deﬁnition of sustainable HRM can be modiﬁed to take into account
these broader outcomes and variety of processes. Sustainable HRM could be deﬁned as the
pattern of planned or emerging HR strategies and practices intended to enable the
achievement of ﬁnancial, social and ecological goals while simultaneously reproducing
the HR base over a long term. It seeks to minimise the negative impacts on the natural
environment and on people and communities and acknowledges the critical enabling role
of CEOs, middle and line managers, HRM professionals and employees in providing
messages which are distinctive, consistent and reﬂect consensus among decision-makers.
Conclusion: the next step towards sustainable HRM?
Sustainable HRM literature represents an alternative approach to people management.
Literature does highlight a number of implications of a sustainable HRM approach for
research and the possible practice of HRM. Although it does not represent a coherent body
of literature, it does raise the importance of explicitly acknowledging the impact of HRM
on more than just organisational economic performance.
It therefore challenges the existing focus of HRM contributing to only ﬁnancial
outcomes, the role of the HR professional as a business partner and the role of human and
social outcomes of HRM merely in terms of their contribution to business outcomes. It
raises the importance of making explicit the moral dimensions of HRM policy, the
interests that are served by policy and the interconnectedness of internal and external
outcomes resulting from these policies. A critical aspect of these requirements is the
explicit statement of the assumptions which underpin the purpose of HRM.
Figure 3. Factors inﬂuencing implementation of HR policies.
R. Kramar 1084
Within the current uncertain global economic, social and ecological climate, the
literature on sustainable HRM will continue to evolve. Sustainable HRM represents a new
approach to managing people, by identifying broader purposes for HRM, through its
recognition of the complexities of workplace dynamics and the explicit recognition of the
need to avoid negative impacts of HRM practices. It is important to acknowledge that
aspects of SHRM and PM are an integral part of sustainable HRM. Therefore,
organisational outcomes such as return on investment, market share and proﬁt are still part
of sustainable HRM, as are operational activities. A body of knowledge on sustainable
HRM is developing; however, the challenge of integrating these into management practice
in the workplace is indeed problematic.
Some of the suggested measures for evaluating sustainable HRM practices are already
used in organisations. These measures include climate, well-being and work – life balance
surveys, prediction of future demand and supply of capabilities through workforce
planning and the estimation of the carbon footprint of an organisation. However, the
implication of a sustainable HRM approach is that these measures are systematically
adopted and form part of a broad HRM strategy.
Sustainable HRM will continue to develop as a concept in the future. It takes an
explicit moral position, requires a multidisciplinary approach and needs to be informed by
theories which enable an understanding of ambiguity, feedback between action and
outcomes and complexity. Critical processes will involve iterative and emergent
processes, stakeholder management and a recognition of the interdependence of processes
at a number of levels. Sustainable HRM offers many opportunities for researchers from a
variety of disciplines and an opportunity to improve management practice.
Arthur, J.B. (1994), ‘Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and
Turnover,’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 3, 670 – 687.
Australian Council of Trade Unions (2012), ‘Lives on Hold: Unlocking the Potential of Australia’s
Workforce,’ The Report of the Independent Inquiry into Insecure Employment, ACTU,www.
Avery, G. (2005),Leadership for Sustainable Futures: Achieving Success in a Competitive World,
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Avery, G., and Bergsteiner, H. (2010),Honeybees and Locusts: The Business Case for Sustainable
Leadership, St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Bachaus, K., Stone, B., and Heiner, K. (2002), ‘Exploring the Relationship Between Corporate
Social Performance and Employer Effectiveness,’Business and Society, 41, 3, 319 – 344.
Bartram, T., Stanton, P., Leggat, S., Casimir, C., and Fraser, B. (2007), ‘Lost in Transition:
Exploring the Link Between HRM and Performance in Healthcare,’Human Resource
Management Journal, 17, 1, 21 – 41.
Becker, B.E., and Huselid, M.A. (2006), ‘Strategic Human Resource Management: Where Do We
Go From Here?’Journal of Management, 32, 6, 898 – 925.
Beer, M., Spector, R., Lawrence, P., Quinn Mills, D., and Walton, R. (1984),Human Resource
Management: A General Managers Perspective, Glencoe III: Free Press.
Benn, S., and Bolton, D. (2011),Key Concepts in Corporate Social Responsibility, London: Sage.
Benn, S., Dunphy, D., and Perrott, B. (eds.) (2011),Cases in Corporate Sustainability and Change,
Melbourne: Tilde University Press.
Bowen, D.E., and Ostroff, C. (2004), ‘Understanding HRM-ﬁrm Performance Linkages: The Role of
“Strength” of the HRM System,’Academy of Management Review, 29, 203 – 221.
Boxall, P., and Macky, K. (2009), ‘Research and Theory on High-Performance Work Systems:
Progressing the High-Involvement Stream,’Human Resource Management Journal, 19, 1,
3 – 23.
Boxall, P., and Purcell, J. (2008),Strategy and Human Resource Management, Hampshire: Palgrave
The International Journal of Human Resource Management1085
Boxall, P., Purcell, J., and Wright, P.M., (eds.) (2007), ‘Human Resource Management: Scope,
Analysis and Signiﬁcance,’ inThe Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, pp. 1 – 6.
Brammer, S., Millington, A., and Rayton, B. (2007), ‘Exploring the Relationship Between Corporate
Social Responsibility to Organisational Commitment,’The International Journal of Human
Resource Management, 18, 10, 1701 – 1719.
Branco, M., and Rodrigues, L. (2006), ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Resource-Based
Perspectives,’Journal of Business Ethics, 69, 2, 111 – 132.
Browning, V., and Delahaye, B. (2011), ‘Enhancing Workplace Learning Through Collaborative
HRD,’ inReadings in HRM and Sustainability, ed. M. Clarke, Melbourne: Tilde University
Press, pp. 36 – 50.
Brundtland, G. (ed.) (1987),Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development:
Our Common Future, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bunge, J., Cohen-Rosenthal, E., and Ruiz-Quintanilla, A. (1996), ‘Employment Participation in
Pollution Reduction: Preliminary Analysis of the Toxic Release Inventory,’Journal of Cleaner
Production, 4, 453 – 470.
Carroll, A.B. (2008),A History of Corporate Social Responsibility: Concepts and Practices, Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Clarke, M. (ed.) (2011), ‘Sustainable HRM: A New Approach to People Management,’ inReadings
in HRM and Sustainability, Melbourne: Tilde University Press, pp. 1 – 7.
Colbert, B. (2004), ‘The Complex Resource-Based View: Implications for Theory and Practice in
Strategic Human Resource Management,’Academy of Management Review, 29, 3, 341 – 358.
Collins, C.J., and Clark, K.D. (2003), ‘Strategic Human Resource Practices, Top Management
Teams Social Networks, and Firm Performance: The Role of Human Resource Practices in
Creating Organizational Competitive Advantage,’Academy of Management Journal, 46, 6,
740 – 751.
Collinson, D., Cobb, G., Power, D., and Stevenson, L. (2007), ‘The Financial Performance of the
FTSE4 Good Indices,’Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15, 1,
14 – 28.
Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A., and Ketchen, D. (2006), ‘How Much Do High Performance Work
Practices Matter? A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on Organizational Performance,’Personnel
Psychology, 59, 3, 501 – 528.
Daily, B.F., and Su, C.H. (2001), ‘Achieving Sustainability Through Attentions to Human Resource
Factors in Environmental Management,’International Journal of Operations and Production
Management, 21, 12, 1539 – 1552.
DiMaggio, P.J., and Powell, W.W. (1983), ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and
Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields,’American Sociological Review, 48, 147 – 160.
Docherty, P., Forslin, J., (Rami) Shani, A.B., and Kira, M. (eds.) (2002), ‘Emerging Work Systems:
From Intensive to Sustainable,’ inCreating Sustainable Work Systems: Emerging Perspectives
and Practice, London: Routledge, pp. 3 – 14.
Docherty, P., Kira, M., and Shani, A.B. (2009), ‘What the World Needs Now is Sustainable Work
Systems,’ inCreating Sustainable Work Systems. Developing Social Sustainability(2nd ed.),
eds. P. Docherty, M. Kira, and A.B. Shani, London: Routledge, pp. 1 – 21.
Donnelly, N., and Proctor-Thomson, S. (2011), ‘Workplace Sustainability and Employee Voice,’ in
Readings in HRM and Sustainability, ed. M. Clarke, Melbourne: Tilde University Press,
pp. 117 – 132.
Dunphy, D., Grifﬁths, A., and Benn, S. (2007),Organization Change for Corporate Sustainability
(2nd ed.), London: Routledge.
Ehnert, I. (2006), ‘Sustainability Issues in Human in Human Resource Management: Linkages,
Theoretical Approaches, and Outlines for an Emerging Field,’ in21st EIASM SHRM Workshop,
Aston, Birmingham, March 28 – 29.
Ehnert, I. (2009),Sustainable Human Resource Management: A Conceptual and Exploratory
Analysis From a Paradox Perspective, Berlin: Physica-Verlag.
Ehnert, I. (2011), ‘Sustainability and Human Resource
Enter the password to open this PDF file:
Specially designed essay help services have made MyAssignmenthelp.com one of the most prolific proposal essay help providers. We have arrays of expert essay writers who successfully deliver essay help depending on broad ranges of subjects and topics. We provide nursing essay help, MBA essay help, English Essay writing help and law essay help to students from different fields of study. Broad ranges of essay writing services assist us to offer quality contents within a specific time limit.
On APP - grab it while it lasts!
*Offer eligible for first 3 orders ordered through app!
ONLINE TO HELP YOU 24X7
OR GET MONEY BACK!
OUT OF 38983 REVIEWS
Received my assignment before my deadline request, paper was well written. Highly