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ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1
For this essay, the selected developmental period is “childhood ”.T ...
ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1
For this essay, the selected developmental period is “childhood ”.This period occurs
when achild is in an age group of 5to 12 years. In this stage, achild experiences active
various active changes at the psychological and physical level (Integrisok.com, 2015).
Although, this period furthermore divided into three stages such as: early childhood, middle
childhood and adolescence. In this essay, there will be discussion about the elected
developmental period, key aspects of associated theories, analyses will be conducted on the
basis of the associated theories, etc. Selected theories related to the childhood stage of
development are as follows: Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory and Social Learning
Overview of the elected period and event experience
Childhood stage is the time when achild enters in aschool. At this stage, there are
various psychological as well emotional changes take place (Hanfstingl, Benke & Zhang,
2019). It is important to understand that childhood mainly focuses on the following
development such as: cognitive development, social and emotional development, gross motor
skill development, fine motor skill development and, speech and language development. The
kind of experiences that achildren encounter in this stage forms an important part in child ’s
psychological development and italso forms lifelong learning. From the psychological
perspective, itcan be analysed that this development sage forms school success, self-
discipline, conflict negotiation, itforms healthy relationships with family and friends, achild
encounter with the ability to make good decisions, etc (Flensborg ‐Madsen & Mortensen,
2018). Thus, itis important that achild should get apositive external environment because it
forms achildren ’sthought and behavioural pattern in the effective way. Condition of external
environment also plays an important role because milestones accomplished in this stage can
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2
be delayed when achildren experience negative and stress from external environment. Apart
from this, Ihad encounter with many experiences in my childhood.
Below part discusses about few of my childhood experiences through which Ihad
encounter with 5to 12 years. At the childhood stage Ihad encounter with various key event. I
had experience about attachment and emotional relationships. Out of my various childhood
experiences, Iwould like to share an experience which taught me about attachment and
sentiments. When Iwas 10 years old then Istarted experiencing that the friendship is also
important in alife. At that time, we (me and 2friends) discuss about various things such as:
where we should go for acycling after school hours, what we should eat today in the cafeteria,
what game we should play today, etc. Ithink that at the age of 10, Istarted learning about
attachment and friendship with each other. Since than my three childhood school friends (we
are still in connect with each other) help me to take accurate decisions, they encourage me for
agood work, etc. When Iwas 11 then sometimes my friends had visit to my house for lunch.
Istill remember that at time my grandparents told me that friends are the major influencers
and who you should your friends wisely. M ygrandparents also told me attachment in
friendship is an extremely important emotion. Since than Ivalue friendship alot.
Apart from this, Ihad encounter with another experience also at my childhood age.
When Iturn 9years old then my parents started giving me few bucks so that sometime Ican
eat my favourite food from the school cafeteria. However, Istill remember that triple layer
cheese burger was my favourite but Ionly got few bucks from my parents. So, Iused to
collect money and save itfor alonger time to afford my favourite food. Ithink that
incorporating such experience has helped me to form afinancial discipline in my life in the
effective way. In my childhood Ihad encounter with various positive as well as negative
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 3
experiences. However, Ifeel glad for experiencing both positive and negative experiences. I
believe that learning self-discipline in the adolescence period is important because self-
discipline teaches akid about delay gratification, unhealthy temptations, turning off video
games to work on their studies, etc. Moreover, attachment and sentiment aspect are also
important in the childhood stage. An individual child encounter with various attachments
which are linked with people, places or things. Forming these attachments incorporate a
substantial effect on overall development patterns throughout life (Harinie, Sudiro, Rahayu &
Bowlby ’sAttachment Theory and Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory focuses on the point that new behaviour and learning processes
can be adopted by observing and imitating others. For example: acertain behaviour can be
adopted by observational learning. In the childhood stage, parents or mentors should create
awareness among their children that external environment has the significant impact on their
inner circle. Parents or mentors should tell children that they (children) should observe the
behaviour of others (Miao, 2020). After that they should evaluate positive or negative
consequences associated with certain behaviour. In this way, children can learn about
adopting abehaviour pattern. This theory focuses on the model of observing, modelling,
emotional reactions to others, attitude of an individual, imitating the behaviours, etc. In this
theory, the major considerable aspect is related with the environmental and cognitive factors
influence on learning and adopting acertain behaviour (Sohrabi, Amir Ali Akbari, Ahmadi
Doulabi & Nasiri, 2020).
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Piaget ’sCognitive Developmental Theory is concerned with the development of a
person ’sthough processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence and in the
definite way to interact with the world. This hypothesis take place in the sequences of
children ’sintellectual development such as: sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage,
concrete operational stage and formal operational stage (Cherry, 2020). For this essay, the
selected age group is childhood development stage.
Analysis of the childhood period from the perspective of Piaget's Cognitive
Developmental Theory and Social learning theory
This paragraph will focus on the concrete operational stage of Piaget ’sCognitive
Developmental Theory (Totsika, Hastings, Emerson & Hatton, 2020). When achildren
accomplish concrete operational stage then he/she begin thinking logically about various
concrete events. In this stage, thought pattern of achildren started influencing from others.
Although, parents or mentors or teachers should help achild to understand that thought
pattern forms or develops on the bases of how we understand and interact with the external
factors. Moreover, parents or teacher also helps children to form apositive self-belief. In
various cases, itcan be observed that achild forms various negative self-belief in the concrete
operational stage of childhood because of different reasons such as: adverse academic
performance, due to encountering with social issues, etc (Y ılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019).
Apart from this, from the aspects of the social learning theory, itis important to
understand about the reinforcement aspect of this theory. Reinforcement can be positive or
negative. If achildren imitate acertain behaviour and its consequence are rewarding then
there are majority of chances that he/she will continue performing the behaviour. For
example: if a10 years old child is being praised by his/her teachers for helping his/her
classmate then there are majority of achances that he/she will continue the behaviour. As,
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reinforcement leads to change aperson ’sbehaviour (McLeod, 2016). Moreover, in reality, it
can be understand that social media is also playing role of the major influencers for not only
children but for adults as well. It is suggested that parents or mentors should keep their
children away from using lot of social media because itputs adverse impact on the overall
personality of achild.
It is concluded that the selected life development stage “childhood stage ”can be
further divided into three parts, such as: early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence.
Two hypotheses are selected in this essay, such as: Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
and Social learning theory. Social learning theory focuses on the area of adopting certain
behaviour and social learnings by observing and imitating others in the effective way. This
hypothesis stands on the five essential steps such as: observation, retention, reproduction,
motivation and attention. Parents or mentors should educate achild that he/she should
observe acertain social behaviour then they should only imitate itafter analysing itpositive
or negative consequences. Apart from this, Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory is
concerned with the development of an individual ’sthought process. There are four stages in
this theory, such as: sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and
formal operational stage. Concrete operational stage is the selected stage. At this stage, a
child being thinking logically and itis necessary that parents or teachers should provide a
positive environment to achild so that they can form learn to form positive self-belief.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 6
Bormanaki, H. B., & Khoshhal, Y. (2017). The Role of Equilibration in Piaget's Theory of
Cognitive Development and Its Implication for Receptive Skills: A Theoretical
Study. Journal of Language Teaching & Research ,8(5).
Cherry, K. (2020). The 4Stages of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from:
Diepeveen, F. B., van Dommelen, P., Oudesluys ‐Murphy, A. M., & Verkerk, P. H. (2018).
Children with specific language impairment are more likely to reach motor
milestones late. Child: care, health and development ,44 (6), 857-862.
Flensborg ‐Madsen, T., & Mortensen, E. L. (2018). Associations of early developmental
milestones with adult intelligence. Child development ,89 (2), 638-648.
Hanfstingl, B., Benke, G., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Comparing variation theory with Piaget ’s
theory of cognitive development: more similarities than differences?. Educational
Action Research ,27 (4), 511-526.
Harinie, L. T., Sudiro, A., Rahayu, M., & Fatchan, A. (2017). Study of the Bandura ’ssocial
cognitive learning theory for the entrepreneurship learning process. Social
Sciences ,6(1), 1-6.
McLeod, S. (2016). Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory .Retrieved from:
Miao, J. (2020). Interpretation of Children's Painting and Child Drawing. Education Reform
and Development ,2(1).
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Sohrabi, R., Amir Ali Akbari, S., Ahmadi Doulabi, M., & Nasiri, M. (2020). Relationship of
Mothers ’Spiritual, Social, and Mental Health and Self-efficacy with Child
Development: A Path Analysis. International Journal of Pediatrics ,8(9), 12117-
Totsika, V., Hastings, R. P., Emerson, E., & Hatton, C. (2020). Early years parenting
mediates early adversity effects on problem behaviors in intellectual
disability. Child development ,91 (3), e649-e664.
Yılmaz, M., Yılmaz, U., & Yılmaz, E. N. D. (2019). The relation between social learning and
visual culture. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education ,11 (4),
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