The scientific revolution is the great advancement of science during the period of late middle ages. During this period, there was an unanticipated burst of knowledge among the scientists and intellectuals. The perception towards nature from the viewpoint of society was completely transformed when there were considerable developments in the field of physics, mathematics, biology, human anatomy, chemistry and astronomy. In the whole of Europe, the revolution in the field of science took place, when the period of Renaissance was about to end, and the revolution was continued until the start of the 19th century. Back in the 18th century, there was a movement called the Enlightenment, and the primary focus of this movement was to influence the intellectuals of society. There is a lot of controversy regarding the starting date of this scientific revolution; however, the publication the book ‘De revolutionibus orbium coelestium’ by Nicolaus Copernicus in the year of 1543 is usually cited as the beginning of the revolution.
Jean Sylvain Bailly was a French astronomer, mathematician and leader of French revolution described in his work that there were two parts in the revolution. The goal of the first stage of revolution was to recover the knowledge form the work of ancient scientists and ancients. This stage of the revolution is known as Scientific Renaissance and the end of this period was in 1632 when Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei published his book ‘Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems’. The scientific revolution, often considered reached the highest peak when Isaac Newton published his book ‘Principia’ in the year 1687. Two of the most important work that was formulated in the book was universal gravitation and laws of motion.
The scientific revolution was the collaboration of numerous new ideas that were introduced in the individual fields. The most important advances happened in the field of astronomy and biology.
Astronomy: In this era, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first person to state that the Earth is the one who is rotating. Before the discovery, ordinary people under the influence of the Church used to believe that the Sun is revolving around the Earth and the Earth is constant at one place. The first heliocentric model of the solar system was developed by Nicolaus Copernicus to prove his theory. Other discoveries of the Galileo and Kepler supported the whole theory.
Gravitation: Sir Isaac Newton, through his discoveries, supported the theory of Copernicus along with the discovery of the Earth’s gravitational power. In the year 1687, the book ‘Principia’ published by Newton have the first introduction of the three universal laws of motion. These laws of motion had a significant role and helped numerous advances in the period of the industrial revolution.
Medical discoveries: The famous Greek physician Galen had the most contribution to the medical field. However, his theories were not perfect as later anatomist Vesalius pointed out many mistakes. Galen did anatomy to animals, and Vesalius was the first person to dissect a human body, which opened the door to tremendous medical advances.
Other than, the fields mentioned above, notable scientific advances happened in the areas of chemistry, mathematics, physics and numerous mechanical devices.
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