The alkali metals are well known to gain prominence in the periodic table consisting of different chemical elements. When someone studies the periodic table, it happens to be a tubular display of the chemical element’s properties. The typical arrangements of the elements in the table is mainly arranged on the basis of the atomic number, electronic configuration and recurring chemical properties. The alkali metals occupy the group 1A of the periodic table. The basic elements of the group 1A are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium. There is also one of the most important reasons for why they are called as the alkali metals, this is mainly because they have the capability of neutralizing the acids, in other words it can be said that they are alkaline in nature.
There are a number of properties of alkali metal which makes them stand out in the periodic table like the they are found only in the group 1A of the periodic table, it is basically arranged on the distribution of the electrons in the outer most shell of the atom like they can simply be arranged on the basis of the electron arranged in the outermost layer of electron, another mot striking feature of these alkali metals is that they can easily be ionized like the electrons present in the outermost shell. They are in silvery nature, they are also soft and not dense in nature. Particularly, they have a low melting point. It is because there electron can easily be removed from their outermost shell, they can use their electron from the last to react with some other metal so that can gain stability. Alkali metals also produce alkali salts like; they are extremely soluble in nature the soluble hydroxides of the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Caustic soda is the most common example, of the soluble hydroxide. In other words sodium hydroxide is known as when they are in air, they can easily turn black in colour. The ionization energy is very high start of the table, then from the top to bottom of the table in groups, the ionization energy decreases and also it increases from left to right across a period.
Therefore, helium can be said to have the largest ionization energy, whereas francium has the lowest ionization energy. They are very unstable in nature like they can easily loose electrons from there outermost shell. Talking about the atomic radii, it can be said that atomic radii vary in the periodic table. Atomic radii increases from the top to the bottom in a group and it decreases from the left to right across of the period. Hence, helium is the smallest element whereas francium is the largest of all. Also, these alkali metals are very reactive in air and water. However they are increasingly dangerous reactivity as one moves down the column from Li to Cs. Elemental potassium and caesium are particularly dangerous in this regard; even one gram can cause a serious hazard in the world.
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