Electronegativity and oxidation number are important for studying the different characteristics of the elements. Electronegativity can be stated as the capability and the tendency of an atom by virtue of which an atom attracts the shared pair of electrons which is present in a covalent bond. There are different ways in which the electronegativity can be measured. The Pauling scale is one of the useful thing that can help ion measuring the electronegativity of an element. The Pauling scale was discovered by the famous scientist named Linus Pauling. While looking at the periodic table it can be stated that the electronegativity of fluorine is of the value of 4.0 which is considered as one of the most electronegative element present in the periodic table. On the other hand, there are two different elements such as cesium and francium, both having the value of 0.7 and is considered as the elements having the least electronegativity. There are various factors upon which the electronegativity of an element depends. The factors are the state of hybridization. The hybridization state plays one of the important role. It can be stated that an element which sp- hybridized is more electronegative compared to the different hybridization state. The second factor is the oxidation state of the element. It can be stated clearly that more is the oxidation state of the element more is the electronegativity. The different substituents which are present in the elements also plays a major role in the electronegativity of an element. The electronegativity increases while moving across the periodic table from left to right. While moving down the group in the periodic table the electronegativity decreases. There are various properties of the elements which are interrelated with the electronegativity. It can be stated that as the electronegativity increases the non- metallic character also increases. While with the decrease in the electronegativity it is observed that the metallic character increases. Fluorine is the elements which is most electronegative in nature. When there are two atoms that are joined to form a bond it is observed that the electron pair which is shared is more attracted towards the electronegative atom. This helps the electronegative atom to acquire a negative charge and the atom which is less electronegative acquires positive charge. It is seen that more is the electronegativity between two atoms, more is the dipole moment between the two atoms. The electronegativity of the atom is not a property of the atom. However, it is the property of an atom when it is in a molecule. The electronegativity of the different atoms present varies with the environment. The environment related with different chemical reactions. There are factors such as the nuclear charge which also affects the electronegativity. It can be observed that electronegativity of an elements cannot be measured directly, it requires the help of certain calculation that helps in the measurements based on certain experiments. The different methods used for measuring the electronegativity shows the same result and periodic trends for the elements.
Oxidation number is given to the atom after having the knowledge about its different ion forms. The oxidation number follows certain rules before it is assigned to a particular element. It is mandatory to have the knowledge whether the atom gains or loses the electrons while it is combining with another atom for the formation of the compounds. The oxidation number which is assigned can be either positive or it can be negative. The oxidation number can even be zero. However, in simple words it can be stated that the oxidation number helps in keeping the track of the electrons present in an atom. It is clear that if the oxidation number is positive than the atom which are there loses the electrons. In case where the oxidation number is negative the atom is supposed to gain the electrons. However, in cases where the oxidation number is zero in such situation there is no gain nor loss related to the electrons. There are different rules that used to assign the oxidation numbers to an element. The very first rule clearly states that the element which is in the pure form consists of the oxidation number as zero. A pure element can be stated as the one that does not combine with any other elements. The second rule states that the oxidation number in case of ion is different. That the oxidation number is same as the charge of the ion. An ion can be stated as an atom which comprises of the charge, the charge is due to the loss or gain of the electrons. The charge which is present in the atom is described as the superscript of the particular atom. The third rule states the oxidation number in case of metals which are present in group 1 and group 2 of the periodic table. In case of the group 1 the oxidation number of the metal is +1 and in case of the group 2 the oxidation number of the metal is +2. The fourth rule deals with the oxidation number of hydrogen. It states that hydrogen comprises of both the positive and negative oxidation numbers. It consists of the negative oxidation number that is -1 in situations when it forms bond with the metals. Hydrogen consists of the positive oxidation number when it forms bonds with different types of non- metal such as chlorine. The rule five deals with the oxidation number of oxygen. It consists of three different oxidation numbers. The oxidation number are as follows +2, -2 and -1. Generally, the oxidation number of oxygen is negative which is -2. There is expectation related with the peroxides where the oxidation number is -1 and in certain cases of compound such as oxygen difluoride where the oxidation number is +2. The rule six states the oxidation number of fluorine with different compounds is -1. The last rule states that the sum of the oxidation numbers in case of the natural compounds is equal to zero. However, the oxidation numbers help in the maintenance of the track related to the electrons.
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