War of 1812 was is considered to be the most pivotal war in the history of America and there are different views of American and British side when it comes to winning of the war. Another name of the war of 1812 is second war of American independence are found to be unresolved issues between Great Britain and United States and it pitted the forces of United States against Great Britain for control over the destiny of continent of North America. The war initiated from 18th June and lasted till 18th February, 1815. The war was the military conflict between Great Britain and America and the alliance of the American Indian of Great Britain on the continent of North America.
The United States took on the greatest naval power of the world in the year 1812 and the war was fought after the revolutionary war and was done over the issues that continued to plague relations between Britain and United Nations. However, during the curses of war, many of the grievances of America was resolved and the war was formally ended because of the treaty of Ghent and this did not bring any considerable changes in the boundaries and prewar borders. The political and physical autonomy of the Native Americans who allied with the British was devastated by the war.
Great Britain and United States were hardly on good terms after the revolution of America and aid has been accepted by America from France, imperial rival and longtime enemy of Great Britain and in order to achieve victory. In the early 1800s, there was flaring of tempers due to the implementation of number of military measures due to Napoleonic war between Britain and France and such measures aiming at weakening the France. Despite the neutrality of US in the war, Americans were caught in the cross fire. Firstly, the practice of impressment was initiated by Britain and the sailors of America was forced into the military service of Britain. In addition to this, trade restrictions was imposed by Britain on United States and the neutrality of the United States was refused in the European war along with the neutral violation of the rights of neutral shipping. Such measured were designed so that the France was not able to provide aid, support and supplies to the United States. In the north western territories, there was alliance of the British with the tribes of Native America. The US settlement in the territory was challenged confederacy of Native America which was led by the prophet Tenskwatawa and his brother Tecumseh. This confederacy was supported by the British for protecting the interest of British in Canada and halting the westward expansion of US and this was done by creating an Indian buffer state between British Canada and US territory. All such explanations had listed out the prime grievances of United States against Britain and are the major reasons of the war of 1812. Therefore, the underlying cause of the broke out of war of 1812 is the British supporting the resistance of American Indian for the western expansion of US. For many years, American Indian were besieged by the settlers of European American in the western territories. Hence, in the nutshell, it can be inferred that some of the causes that led to the war of 1812 include impressment of royal navy of American seamen, attempts of Britain to restrict the trade of United States and desire of America to expand its territory.
Some of the key battles in the northern campaign of Britain include Battle of siege and Baltimore of fort McHenry that took place on 13th and 14th September, 1814 which was the battle between forces of Britain and US. Other battles were Battle of New Orleans that took place between 8th to 18th January, 1815, battles of Lake Erie that took place on 10th September, 1813, battle of burning of Washington and Bladensburg that took place on 24th August, 1814 and battle of Plattsburgh on 11th September, 1814.
One of the results of the attack by the British forces during the war of 1812 is the burning of white house on 25th August, 1814. It was the time when the enemy forces occupied the capital of America. The forces of America was overcome by the British forces under General Robert Ross on 24th August, 1814 at Maryland. They marched in an unopposed manner towards the national capital of US that is Washington, D.C. Washington was occupied and it was set on fire to various presidential building which included the White House and was known with the name Presidential mansion. This attack was a retaliation and was in response to the attack on the government building of Canada. The troop under the command of George Cockburn set many public buildings on fire out of which the most recognizable was the White house. Reconstruction of white house was done in early 1815 and was finished until the inauguration of the new president, James Monroe.
The battle of British siege of Fort McHenry and Baltimore took place on 13th and 14th September in 1814 which indicated the conflict between forces of Britain and United States. This battle was encouraged by the victory at the battle of Bladensburg and subsequent capturing of Washington and the British was intent on capturing the Baltimore, the major port city of Maryland. It was hoped by the British that war effort of America would be crippled because of the loss of Baltimore and Washington. There were 1000 men at Fort McHenry of the United States under major general Samuel who had 20 guns against the forces of British under Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane. With about 5000 men and 19 ships, British turned out to be more equipped. Baltimore being a port city was believed to be the base of privateers of America was advance attacked by the British. A firm stance was declared by the defenders and residents of Baltimore against the British by seizing their transporting limited and merchant ship cargoes to foreign ports. About 30% of the merchant ships that was captured by U.S was accounted by Baltimore and it resulted in earning the nickname of “nest of pirates”. The war ended with the restoration of the pride of America and with the successful defense of Baltimore and these were much needed after the successful defense of Washington, D.C. Moreover, the strategy of British had been defensive during the war of 1812 and they were less concerned of fighting a minor war with US than to defeat napoleon in Europe. Meanwhile, the course of the war was influenced by the events in Europe and more of the resources of the Britain were devoted to the war against United States and before the end of the war, all such practices were abandoned.
Native Americans found themselves to be in a dubious decision and the outcome of civil war was known to them that it would impact both the economic prosperity and the land in the new world dominated by European settlers descendants. Majority of Native American fought for the Union and some tribes fought for the Confederacy. Native Americans soldiers were welcomes by both confederate and US government. In certain key battles, Native American soldiers were instrumental in achieving victories over certain battles and fought passionately and bravely for their sides. The outcome of some of the battles that were influenced by such soldiers such as second battle of Manassas, pea ridge, Spotsylvania, Antietam and Petersburg. In the east, Native Americans were a part of conflict of civil war which made some sense to separate. The lives and livelihood were influenced the outcome of the war and the government of US was glad for their participation. A different situation was confronted by the Native America who lived on the western frontier. However, in strategic locations, neutrality was not consider the option for the conflict.
There were several places where the war of 1812 was fought such as Canada, United States and on high seas. Many of the battles were fought against the British, Canada and the opponents of Native America in New York and Michigan and in the provinces of Canada such as Quebec and Ontario. The foes of Native American was faced by the forces of America throughout the war in the territories of Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. A sea born invasion of the Gulf coast was attempted by the British American and this lead to combat in Louisiana. A blockade of American post was enforced by the British particularly along the Atlantic sea board and in the South. In the final stage of war, a seaborne invasion of the Gulf coast was regularly attempted by British. A blockade of American ports was enforced by the British and this blockade was challenged by flaring of naval engagements around the bay of Chesapeake. One of the reasons of the war of 1812 was the unsubtle supporting of Native American group by the British. The growth of a major globe trade competitor was further unleashed by the loss of lodgment of native America against the expansion of North America.
The treaty of Ghent was signed on 24th December, 1814 by the representatives of America and Britain at Belgium and Ghent that ended the war. As per the treaty terms, planning of commissions were done to settle the boundaries of Canada and United States and returning of all the conquered territory. This treaty of Ghent mattered enormously and consequently rather than destroying the United States, such treaty cemented United States. The treaty terminated the war between United States and Britain and such war was unhappily subsisted between these two countries and the relations would be restored upon the principles of peace, perfect reciprocity and to create good understanding between them. The components of treaty of Ghent involved records and archives to be restored, inviolable and firm peace and restoration of territory with exception.
In addition to this, there shall be universal peace between the United States and majesty of Britain and between their respective territories, town, cities, people, person and place. With the ratification of the treaty, all the hostilities both by the land and sea shall be ceased. Either of the party took all the territories, possessions and places and this would be taken by signing of treaty. Neither of the countries were able to obtain desired concessions because of the well balanced military positions of each of these countries. In the peace settlement of neutral rights, there was no mentioning of this and in particular about the seamen impressment as this was listed as one of the main reasons why US went for war. There was better serving of interest of expansionist in the Northwest of America as the United States surrendered all the territory led by British. In addition to this, there was a number of transfer of land between the US and Indians and treaties of allegiance because of severance of ties of British American Indian in 1814 and 1815 and this opened the way to the settlement of America in Northwest. It was also provided by the treaty that certain dispute of boundary between United States and Canada be referred to as the commission of arbitration and it was agreed to use the best efforts for abolishing the international slave trade by the government of both United States and Canada. Therefore, it is observed from identification of the components of treaty of Ghent that it played a major role in resolving the issues between Britain and United States and pledge to eradicate any international slave trade between the countries.
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