The rings of Saturn are the most widespread ring structure in all the planets in the solar system (Micek, 2019). These rings comprises uncountable small particles in small sizes ranging from micrometers to meters orbiting around Saturn. The ring elements comprises exclusively water ice as well as trace elements of rocky material. However, up to date there is still no consensus regarding their formation mechanism. Even though there exists theoretical models suggesting that the rings could have been formed before the history of the solar system. While the reflection from the rings intensifies the brightness of Saturn, this brilliance is not discernable from Earth without aided visualization. In this sense, in 1610, Galileo Galilei was the first individual to perceive Saturn’s rings using a telescope; nevertheless, he could not clearly perceive them to discern their real nature (Zhang, 2017). Consequently, in 1655, Christiaan Huygens happened to the earliest individual to describe these rings as a disk around Saturn.
There are various theories associated with how Saturn’s rings came into existence. It is believed that Saturn got its rings through a violent origin, when the planet merged at the origin of the solar system approximately 4 billion years ago. These rings were formed as a result of the swirling disk of gas surrounding it in addition to other moons similar to the scope of Titan. Titan is Saturn’s vast existing satellite that is nearly 50% greater than the Earth’s moon. However, because of gravitational pull with the gas it resulted in the moons’ orbit to contract. Consequently, due to the shrinking the satellites come into death ringlets and charged into the planet. Prior to every moon colliding, intense tidal forces generated by the gravitational pull by Saturn overextended and constricted, shedding off most of its ice. Successive moon gravitationally seized this ice, nonetheless, it was finally pushed and constricted till they too shed off their ice and charged into Saturn. According to Ciarniello et al. (2019) the present day Saturn’s ring system is a remnant of the last moon to fall victim of Saturn’s massive gravitational pull. Basically, the moon used to be a huge ice ball with a stony middle. Soon after the ice-rich surface was shed off in gigantic masses, the rocky center vanished below the Saturnian gasses (Castillo-Rogez, Hemingway, Rhoden, Tobie, & McKinnon, 2018). The remains of the final ruined moon, each initially between one and fifty kilometers transversely, made an icy ring system approximately a thousand times bigger compared to the present rings. In the successive four billion years, countless smashes between these huge masses produced extremely reduced ring elements currently circumnavigating Saturn. Therefore, the tiny rocky materials that presently occur in the ring system is likely the fragments of impacts between icy ring elements and asteroids as well as comets swept up by the massive gravitational pull of the planet.
On the other hand, other scientists believe that passing asteroids or comets were snagged by the gravitational pull of the planet, which broke up before reaching it (Dubinski, 2019). Another theory is that the rings of Saturn were at one point huge moons that spiraled into the planet. Saturn has more than 60 moons and only one Titan is huge; the remaining are small. Statistics reveals that nearly thirteen of Saturn’s moons are bigger than fifty kilometers. As a result, the gravitational pull of these moons influences the structure of Saturn’s rings and give insight into likely formation approaches.
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