The legs are the two lower limbs of the body. It is that part of the body that runs from back hip to the knee for each leg. . Each leg contains five regions named as upper leg, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The upper leg is generally named as thigh. They provide support and a range of movements to the body. The major muscles in the legs are considered as long muscles, which helps them to stretch great distances. The muscles contact and relax; they move skeletal bones to create movement of the body. Smaller muscles help the larger muscles, stabilize joints, help rotate joints, and facilitate other fine-tuned movements. The upper leg muscles are hamstrings, quadriceps and adductors.
Hamstrings- The hamstrings are a part of upper leg which is grouped into muscles and their tendons at the rear upper leg. The hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee. The hamstrings include the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranous. The hamstrings are three muscles which is located on the back of the thigh. They help the knee to bend. The hamstring flexes the knee joint and extends the high to the backside of the body. They help the body in running, walking and many other physical activities. The hamstring part is quiet susceptible to injury. In quadrupeds, the hamstring is the single large tendon found behind the knee or comparable area.
Quadriceps- The quadriceps muscle is a group of muscle which is located in the front of the thigh. The word quadriceps has been derived from Latin which means “four headed”, as the group contains four separate muscles, the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastsu intermedius and the rectus femoris. It acts as the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and side of the femur. The 4 quadriceps are the powerful extensor of the knee joint. They play a crucial role in running, walking, jumping and squatting. As the rectus femoris attcahes to the illium, it is also a flexor of the hip. This action is also crucial in walking or running as it swings the leg forward into the ensuing step. The castus medialis of quadriceps plays a major role in stabilizing the patella and the tree joint during gait.
Adductors- The adducors are those muscles which is grouped into five adductors adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis,obturatir externus and gracilis. The main function of adductors is to adduct the femur at the hip joint. Although they are located somewhere along the medial side of the thigh, they all originate in different places at the front of the pelvis. It also forms the medial wall of the femoral triangle.
The major part of muscles in the leg is considered as long muscles, in that they stretch great distances. As these muscles relax and contract, they move skeletal bones to create movement of the body. Smaller muscles help the larger muscles, stabilize joints, help rotate joints, and facilitate other fine-tuned movements. The main muscles of legs are quadriceps femoris, the central rectus femoris, which is surrounded by the tree vastil, the vastus intermedius, medialis and lateralis.
The quadriceps femoris is a group of muscles which is located in the front of the thigh. Each of the vastus muscles originates on the femur bone and attaches to the kneecap. However, unlike the vastus muscles, the rectus femoris inserts into the hip bone. The lateral femoral circumflex artery and its branches supply the quardriceps with oxygenated blood, and the femoral nerve (and its subsequent branches) innervates the muscle group. The quadriceps assist in extending the knee. Since these muscles are used often for walking, running and other physical activities, the quadriceps are prone to injuries including strains, tears and ruptures.
Each time we take a step or lift our leg, we lift one foot off the ground while balancing your body weight onto your other foot. The hips of human body tilt sideways while bending the knee and when we land on our heel propelling our body forward. Then straighten the forward leg while the back leg prepares to bend. The muscles which are responsible for these activities are the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus laterralis and sartorius which run from the hip to the inside of the knee. The hamstring muscles of the leg, present at the back of the leg comprising bicep femoris, semimembranous and semitendinosus, iliopsoas in the hip, shin muscles shin muscles ie, tibialis, peroneus longus, and calves that is gastrocnemius, and soleus pectineus, gluteus medius and maximus. The glutes propel your leg forward. As you step forward, your tibialis and flexor digitorum longus flex your foot upwards. The back leg engages your gastrocnemius and soleus in the lower leg, and the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles in the upper leg. The iliopsoas, rectus femoris and sartorius muscles are responsible for flexing the leg. The gluteus maximus, semimembranous, semitendinosus and biceps femoris are responsible for extending the leg. The gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and the deep gluteals are responsible for abducting (moving towards the centre) the leg. The adductor longus, brevis and magnus, pectineus and gracillis are responsible for adducting (that is moving away from the centre) the leg. The bicep femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus, semitendinous and semimembranous and the deep gluteals are responsible for rotating the leg. The joints which are helpful for walking are hip joints, made up of head of the femur and the acetabulumin in the pelvis, ligaments and muscles. The knee joints which is composed of the femur, patella, tibia and fibula; meniscus, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament, extensor and flexor muscles helps for walking. The ankle joint which is formed of the femur, tibia, tibula, malleolus, talus; ligaments helps in walking.
The upper leg bone is referred as femur; femur is called as the thigh bone, this is the longest bone in the whole body. Femur is also accounted as the strongest bone. The long, straight part of the femur is called as the femoral shaft. It is the proximal bone of the hindlimb in tetrapod vertebrate. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint. The femur is responsible for height of a human body not all of it but quarterly. Its length on average is 26.74% of a person's height. The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis (shaft or body) and two epiphyses (extremities) that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. The femur is the only bone in the thigh of the human body; it serves as an attachment point for all the muscles that exert their force over the hip and knee joints. Some of the biarticular muscles- which cross two joints like the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles- also originate from the femur. All the 23 individual muscles either originate from or insert onto the femur. If we do cross-section, we will find the thigh is divided up into three separate fascial compartments divided by fascia, each containing muscles. These compartments use the femur as an axis, and are separated by tough connective tissue membranes (or septa). Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, and contains a different group of muscles. These compartments are named the anterior, medial and posterior fascial compartments.
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