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Structures Of The Synovial Joint That Allow It To Move Freely

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 2
  • Course Code: BIOL460
  • Course Title: Structures Of The Synovial Joint That Allow It To Move Freely
  • University: University of Waterloo
  • Country: CA

Synovial joint is the most commonly found joint in the human body. This joint is helpful for the movement of the various parts of the body freely. It helps for the free movement of the knee so people can go on with their daily lives. The synovial joint is made up of five different structures like Synovial fluid, Articular Cartilage, Articular Capsule, Bursae and accessory structures.

Articular Capsule is a covering which covers the knee joint and helps in connecting the bones in the thigh and the bones in the shin. It comprises of two parts one is inner layer and another is outer layer.

A covering of white tissue starts from the ends of the lower part of the thigh bone and upper part of the shin bone. This helps the joint to work smoothly avoiding them to rub against each other during movement. This white tissue is called the articular cartilage.

Synovial Fluid is the main component which helps in the free movement of the synovial joint. If this liquid is not properly generated in the body the function of the synovial joint is hampered and can lead to various ailments.

Bursae acts as a lubricator of the joints and helps the synovial joint to function properly. It help to reduce tension among various muscles of the leg.

Accessory structure are those structures which apart from the above parts provide additional help and support to the synovial joints. This is divided into many sub parts like articular disk which provide thin plates which are ovally shaped creating separate cavity. Meniscus is also a part of the accessory structure, which helps in absorbing of shocks in the joint. Accessory ligaments are also present which help to remove un-necessary directional movement among the synovial joints.

The nerves in the synovial joint correspond as per the Hilton’s Law. The synovial joint is supplied by sciatic, femoral and Obturator nerves. They then combine and supply a series of motor, sensory or both nerves to the various parts of the synovial joints. The synovial joints are covered by a vast network of blood vessels which are first supplying blood to the outer surface. When the blood vessels reach the inner layer they branch out to form a set of capillaries which goes to all parts of the joint and is connected with a network of veins. The synovial sac however depend on their nourishment on the synovial fluid.

There are various number of joints present in the body each of which have various parts comprising it. The first comes the cartilage which is a tough material that covers the bones end and absorbs external shocks. Then is the joint capsule which covers the joint like a protective shell. Then comes the joint space which is where in the gap where the cartilage extends. Then after the joint space is the Synovium which produces synovial fluid. After this Bursae comes into play which help the bones, tendons, muscles and ligaments work efficiently.

Movement in the body is accredited to the various layers of muscles covering the body. These muscles are connected to various ligaments and tendons which help in its proper functioning. Ligaments connect the joints between bones while tendons attach the muscles with bones. Ligaments connect bones-bones at a joint, are yellow coloured tissue fibre and are packed in a compact way. Tendons are not elastic and are primarily tough. Tendons transfer a force which is mechanical from the muscles to the bones. A tendon is characterized as dense tissues which are connective. These then connect into a series of fibre bundles which in turn is transformed to a tendon unit. Tendon are very rigid and can withstand a lot of pressure but cannot be stretched. Thus tendons help the body in movement by transferring the muscle energy to the bones. Although tendons are rigid there are some tendons which are a bit of flexible at the joints. Thus tendons are a supporting tool along with ligaments which help in the movement and flexibility of the body.

Synovial joints play a vital role in the movement of the different parts of the body. There are six types of synovial joints in a human body each helping movement to the parts of the body. The first is the planar joint which is found in the hand and the foot. These joints help in only gliding movements and do not involve rotation of the joints. The area of coverage of movement of these joints is limited to only gliding. The second is the hinge joint which functions as a door. In this joint bones remain fixed and only one of the bone is able to move. This works like a hinge on a door. The third joint is the pivot joint where one bone has a ring like cavity and the other bone is rounded and they fit into each other perfectly. These joints are able to perform rotation movements. The fourth joint is the Condyloid joints in which an ovally shaped bone fits into an oval cavity of another bone. These joints allow for side-side movement as well as up-down movement. The fifth joint is the saddle joint being similar to Condyloid joint, however it allows a greater range of movement among the joints. The last synovial joint present in a human body is the ball and socket joint. It allows movement which is in all the directions. A ball like end of the bone fits into another bone. This joint is present in two parts of the body.

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