The theory of everything or the master theory also known as the ultimate theory is a hypothetically single, coherent theoretical framework of physics, which completely describes and joins together all the physical aspects present in the universe. The theory of everything is a major unsolved problem pertaining to physics and over the past centuries only two theoretical framework has been developed, which altogether resemble a theory of everything. The two prime theories based on which, the modern framework for physics persists are general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT).
General relativity is a theoretical framework, which only has focus on gravity to understand various regions of the visible universe, of both large-scale and huge mass like the galaxies, clusters of galaxies, stars. Quantum field theory on the other hand is a certain theoretical framework, focusing only on three non-gravitational forces to understand the universe in regions of both low mass and small scale like the sub-atomic particles, molecules and atoms. Quantum field theory successfully implements the Standard model, which describes the three non-gravitational forces as weak, strong and electromagnetic forces.
Consecutive years in research have made physicists experiment to confirm tremendous accuracy and virtually predict every occurrence opined by these two theories where appropriated to applicability. Based on the findings, scientist learned that general relativity and quantum field theory, formulated as of now, are not compatible to one another mutually, which basically means both of them cannot be correct. The usual domains of applicability for general relativity and quantum field theory are vastly different, and in most of the situations, either of the two theories are required. The fact that both GR and QFT are incompatible to one another is only relevant for regions, which are extremely small scale, the Planck scale, such that they can only exist inside a black hole or during the initial phases of the creation of the universe, the moment immediately succeeding the big bang. This incompatibility was resolved by the application of a theoretical framework, which revealed a deep reality used for unifying gravity with the other three interactions, which is required to discover the harmonious integrity in the realms of GR and QFT, which is the Theory Of Everything (TOE), a principle powerful enough to describe all the phenomenon occurring in the universe.
Quantum gravity is an active area of research, where string theory has gradually evolved as a probable candidate for the TOE, but it also has drawbacks and controversies associated with it. String theory states that the beginning of the universe, a time period of 10-43 seconds after the big bang, the four fundamental forces were once a single fundamental force. Based on the propositions of string theory, every pertinent particle in the universe, in the most microscopic level , the Planck length, consist of varying combinations of strings which vibrated, with certain vibrational patterns. String theory further states that it is due to these specific oscillation patterns of string, that a particle of unique mass and force charge got created, which basically means that the electron is a type of string that vibrates one way, while up quark is a type of string vibration moving in a different way.
Theory of Everything would help to unify the different fundamental interactions in nature like the gravitation, weak interaction, strong interaction and electromagnetism. The weak interaction is able to transform elementary particles from one type to another, the TOE should also help in understanding the various probable kind of particles. Lot of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) were proposed for unifying electromagnetism and the strong and weak forces. The implication of existence of electronuclear forces is done through grand unification theories, it is expected to kick in at energies in the order of 1016 GeV, which is much more than the earth-based particle accelerator. However, the simplest GUTs are ruled out experimentally, the general idea when linked to super symmetry, is still a favorite part in the theoretical physics community. The TOE will help to explain the status of two forces suggested by modern cosmology, the inflationary force and the dark energy. Moreover, cosmological experiments suggest the presence of dark matter, though the existence of these forces and particles are not proven yet.
Physicists like Edward Witten believe that 11-dimensional M-theroy, which is used to describe the limits of five pertubative superstring theories and another maximally super symmetric 11- dimensional supergravity, is the theory of everything. Surprising attributes of string theory is the existence of extra dimensions are required to prove the consistency of this theory. This was realized that the application of general relativity to a five-dimensional universe to look for the four dimensional perspective like the use of general relativity with Maxwell’s electrodynamics. This helped to understand the concept of unifying gravity and gauge interactions, and to extra dimensions, but was unable to provide the detailed experimental requirements. Super symmetry is another important property, together with extra dimensions, are the two main proposals used to resolve the problem of hierarchy of the standard model, where the question arises the weakness of gravity compared to other forces. The solution involving extra dimension involves the propagation of other dimension , while keeping other forces confined to a four-dimensional space time. String theory researches are encouraged by varieties of theoretical and experimental factors.
Current research on loop quantum gravity has an important role in a TOE, as this theory introduces a lesser bound in the length scales. Recent claims suggest that loop quantum gravity may be able to reproduce features resembling the Standard model. The first generation of fermions, having correct parity properties are modelled by Sundance Bilson-Thompson with the use of preons, consisting of braids of space time in the building blocks. Though, there is no probable derivation of the Lagrangian to describe the interaction between such particles, to show that these particles are fermions, nor the group of gauges for interaction with the Standard Model are realized. Use of quantum computing concept are made possible for demonstrating the nature of particles, which are able to survive quantum fluctuations.
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