Erosion is said to be a geographical process where the materials of the earth are damaged as well as transported through forces like wind or water. This process is then broken down or it can dissolve the rocks. Erosion does not lead to deposition. Water, ice or wind helps in performance of erosion. In case of wind being dusty or water gets muddy in that case erosion can be taking place. The bits of the rock are indicated by brown in colour and soil are transported which gets suspended in either air or in water from one destination to another. The material which gets transported can be called as sediments. Certain problems are created through erosion affecting the human beings. In fact, soil is removed through soil erosion that leaves behind a thin layer. Even erosions can be caused by human beings through various kinds of activities. Deforestation is another cause of erosion. Another reason for erosion might be agriculture that can use unsustainable practices like planting of mono crops, through surface irrigation as well as bacteria that can get destroyed by chemical fertilizers can lead to erosion. On the other hand urbanization can cause conversion of land into pavement and there can also be reduction in vegetation causing of erosion. Increased flooding, soil degradation as well as desertification can lead to erosion. Erosion can get prevented through several measures. Conservation of forests, natural landscapes, effective water management, use of sustainable agricultural practices can lead to prevention of erosion. In case of rivers and estuaries erosion of banks is caused due to movement of water especially in times of flood. In case of erosion caused due to rain and frost the land surface remains unaffected through rivers and streams. Hence the sediments are carried to rivers and later to the ocean.
There are two main types of soil erosion. Water erosion and wind erosion. During heavy rains the bearing capacity of soils decreases heavily and soil is washed away which causes erosion. Runoff water is also one of the factors when during floods or extra volume of water not able to be carried by the drains wash over large areas of land and weaken the top soil resulting in soil erosion. Wind erosion is another major factor that impacts soil erosion in arid and semi arid lands. High wind depletes the top soil and can deposit them in water bodies or in desert regions can hold the individual particles of clay, silt , humus in suspension for long periods of time
There are certain causes of soil erosion. Distribution of rainfall may be uneven. Shifting cultivations can easily be degraded into soil and with tropical vegetation land remains to get covered. The removal of forest can lead to soil loss as well as effect the hill slopes. Large quantity of plant nutrients as well as soil’s surface layer gets washed away through heavy rainfall. There is too much of loss of soil. The top soil gets washed away through rains. For burning down of forest trees hugely fires in the forests becomes responsible. Then again there might be fault in agricultural methods. In case of leveling and terracing of upland fields farmers are least bothered to play any significant role. Removal of vegetational cover of soil is done through over-grazing of cattle. Other factors would include energy ability of rainfall, runoff can cause erosion which leads to reduction in runoff . The next factor would include resistance. Mechanical as well as chemical soil properties lead to infilteration rate and thus brings reduction in runoff and brings down soil erodibility.
Next factor leading to the erosion will be protection. Plant cover would be reducing runoff and create soil erosion. There can be different protection different plant cover and can lead to development for controlling erosion. There can also be certain factors relating to water erosion. Soil characteristics would be affecting soil infilteration rate. This rate further depends upon permeability of soil as well as surface condition. Next important factor would be vegetation. This would create an obstacle for raindrops as well as for runoffs. Good vegetative cover is must to reduce the erosion. Factor also includes topographic effect. Slope length, slope of land as well as slope shape can lead to soil erosion. Due to increased slope of land there can be increase in erosion. Climatic factors might include erosion through temperature, wind, humidity as well as solar radiation. There can also be physical property of soil that can be transported. Properties in the form of soil structure, texture as well as organic matter can influence erosion. Raindrop can also lead to erosion turbulence can be caused leading to great amount of sediment carrying capacity. The amount of soil that would get splashed to the air would be known from splash losses through elevated pans. On the other hand high on steep slopes velocities through sediment transportation will lead to serious erosion.
Creative force can highly effect landforms. Landforms created through erosions known as fluvial erosion landforms. Sediments gets carried away as soon as water passes through the land. The next factor was destructive power. Creative force can build up the landforms and can destroy. Therefore the process would reduce size of the hills, and it would lead to create valleys and ditches. Another factor would be leading to landform grading system. Landform erosion activity would be monitored by Environmental Protection Agency. A certain specific grading system is used by EPA that would be measuring and evaluating as well evaluation of the land sloping.
Monitoring and modelling soil erosion and understanding the causes that escalate the process can be used to check soil erosion and the resulting damage it does to civilian settlements. Trying to prevent degradation of land in construction areas, checking grazing activities by cows or goats in village areas, planting trees and vegetation in windy areas, terracing of land in hilly areas, farming on delicate lands.
Thus it can be concluded from above discussions that the sandy as well as silty texture soils are responsible leading to water erosion. Rich parent material needs to get removed related to the erosion cause. It could also be found from the above discussion that redisposition as well as eroded sandy materials was able to burn out existing amount of soil. From above discussion it can also be recommended that how to mitigate the risks related to soil erosion. Mainly it could be found that soil damage could impact into soil erosion. Soil remaining infertile can lead to erosion. Certain soil erosion practices such as zero-tillage as well as contour plowing could be implemented in case of cultivation to get continued. Soil erosion through wind as well assoil erosion through water needs to be expected for protection of vegetation stabilization and which gets removed and soils also gets exposed.
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