Crystalline solids mainly fall under four categories. All the given categories require involvement of packaging of discrete molecules or even atoms into lattice or array of repeating order where network solids are considered to be special case. The categories are mainly separated from each by the nature of interaction that is holding of discrete atoms or molecules on together platform. Depending on the nature of the forces which aim to hold to component of atom, ions or molecules. Solid can be classified like ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic. The overall variation in the strength is mainly of four types of interaction which correlates nicely with huge variation in overall properties.
Both ionic and molecular solids do not have any kind of chemical bonding in the molecules and ions. Solid mainly comprises of certain number of chemical species which are held together by some of the intermolecular forces which are defined as electrostatic or Columbia forces. The given forces are completely obvious for ionic solid that is NaCl where Na+ ions are completely attracted by negative charged Cl-1. In the absences of these ions, electrostatic forces are considered operationa. For polar molecules that are CH2 Cl2 come up with positively charged region where one molecule is mainly attracted to negative charged ion of another given molecule.
Hydrogen bonding can be stated as a term which is needed for attractive interaction which exists in between hydrogen molecule or even molecular fragment. In X-H, X is considered to be much more electronegative in comparison to H were atom or group in same or various molecule. In these, there is proper evidence of bond formation. Attractive interaction in the hydrogen bond comes up with much more electrostatic contribution that has dispersion forces along with weak covalent bonding.
In metallic and network solids, chemical bonds aim to hold individual chemical subunits on together platform. In this crystal is considered to be single, microscopic molecule which have chemical bonding in the whole structure. In most of the metallic solids, valance electrons that are not exclusively associated with single atom. Rather than electron tend to exit in molecular orbital that is delocalized over most of the atoms resulting in electronic band structure. Metallic structure mainly comprises of collection of cations in sea of electrons. This particular kind of chemical bonding is defined as metallic bonding.
Ionic Solids: Ionic solid mainly comprises of both positive and negative charged ions which are held together by electrostatic forces. Overall strength of attractive forces mainly depends on the charge and size of the ions, which composes the lattice. It is mainly needed for understanding the physical properties of various crystals. Lattice energy has direct relation to the multiplication of ionic charge and inversely related to proportional to the sum of radius of ions. Ionic solids are completely held by ionic bands. They come up with lattices which comprise of opposite charge ions. Ionic solid aim to have high melting point. It is high for higher metallic but completely lower for covalent. As the electrons are in ionic solid are completely localized. These particular solid tend to be stiff and brittle similar to covalent solids.
Molecular Solids: Molecular solid mainly comprises of either atoms or molecules that are held together by dipole-dipole interaction. It is all about London dispersion forces or hydrogen bond which are combined. As the molecular interaction in solid molecule is considered to be relatively weak in comparison to ionic and covalent bonds. Molecular solids are considered to be soft, minimum melting and can be easily vaporized. For much of the similar substances, the strength London dispersion forces tend to be increasing for molecular mass. The melting point of benzene, naphthalene and anthracene which come up with one, two or three fused rings. If the molecules which have shape cannot pack together efficiently is vital for crystal. The melting point and enthalpies of fusion are considered to be very much low because the molecules cannot arrange themselves for optimizing the intermolecular interaction. Self-healing rubber is the most suitable example of molecular solid which comes up with potential for some commercial application. The given material can be stretch at the instances of changing into pieces. It can be easily bond back together again through reestablishment of hydrogen-bonding network. This particular aspect does not highlight any sign or symbol of weakness. There are many other applications which are being studied for its adhesive usage and bicycle tries which will self-heal.
Covalent Network Solids: Covalent solid are mainly formed by different chain of atoms or network which is held by covalent bonds. The single crystal of covalent is considered to be single gain molecule. The overall structure of diamond consists of Sp3 hybridized atom where each one is bonded to next carbon atoms in array, which creates a suitable network. Covalent solids are also defined as network solid where most of the solids is completely held together by covalent bonds. These mainly comprise of localized electrons and atoms that are completely arranged fixed geometries. Distortion away from the geometry will ultimately result in covalent bond sigma bonds. Melting point of covalent solids is considered to be very much high. It tends to be extremely hard substances which can be broken down into proper pieces instead of smooth pieces. It comes up 3D network structure which has covalent solid inclusive of diamond and silica.
Pseudo solids: This particular kind of solid are considered to be amorphous which come up with minimum melting and boiling points. This particular kind of solid is considered to be true solids. As a result of such short-range order that is amorphous solid, which are crystalline and others may not be crystalline. It is considered to be main reason behind the milkiness for window glass for old buildings. It is mainly due to heating at the time of day and cooling at nights where the glass requires some particular crystalline aspects.
From the above discussion, the point can be concluded that melting point order of solid is as follows
Covalent Solids > Ionic Solids < Molecular Solids < Pseudo Solids.
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